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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
The United Kingdom of Great Britain came into existence in 1707, when England and Scotland were
into one country. The term
refers to both English and Scots.
In 1714, the last Stewart ruler,
, died without an heir. Her nearest relatives were the
family from Germany. The next King of England, named
, was German; and spoke no English! This led to the
actually setting more and more British policy.
Britain and British North America
Head of the Cabinet
This was the title of the highest ranking member of
, who directly advised the King, and helped to set British government policy. Eventually, this position becomes known as the
From 1721-1742, the Head of the Cabinet was
, who encouraged peaceful foreign relations. But growing trade and industry pressured the government to
the British Empire.
William Pitt became Head of Cabinet in 1757, and he immediately began to
the Empire by taking
Seven Years’ War
. (The part you guys are familiar with took place in America, and here it was called the
French and Indian War
This gave Britain control of an American colonial system with more than 1 million residents.
The American Revolution
, the colonies in America were controlled by the
British Board of Trade
. In reality, however, the colonies had set up
in each state and were pretty much
At the end of the French and Indian War, the British expected the Americans to help
for the expense of the war, as well as the
of maintaining an army in America.
The Stamp Act
While the majority of Americans didn’t necessarily
with paying some money, their issue was with being taxed even though they had
. They called this “Taxation Without Representation.”
The British insisted that: A. America was
too far away
for a representative to be useful, and B.
No other colony
was represented in Parliament
Parliament passed the
in 1765, but violent response from the Americans caused it to be
The War for American Independence
The British had not given up on
some money from the Americans. They passed a series of tax acts that culminated in the one that began the war: the
The Americans had set up a
in 1774 to discuss the disagreements with Britain. In 1775, a group of Americans fired on
in Massachusetts, basically
the American War for Independence.
The War Continues
In 1776, the
Second Continental Congress
met to determine America’s future.
First, they formed an
to be led by
General George Washington
. Next, they debated on whether or not to
the war or try to
. They eventually settled on
, and Thomas Jefferson wrote the
Declaration of Independence
, signed by the members on July 4, 1776. America was now at
for Independence from Britain.
America was much
than Britain, and had
no trained army
. They also had
no organized government
to pay troops or buy equipment, and
no military manufacturing at all
. In short, they should have gotten
Britain, and was more than willing to
the new American government. By 1778, after a few American victories, the
joined the Americans also.
In 1781, the Americans
the British serving under General Cornwallis at
, Virginia. Cornwallis had been
to defeat the Americans. When he was unsuccessful, they decided to
throw in the towel
In 1783, the British and Americans signed a peace agreement at
, giving the Americans the territory all the way to the
The American Experiment
The colonies had gained their
, but were hardly in agreement about what to do
They were afraid of
strong central government
had different ideas about what was best for them. So, in 1781, they agreed to a system called the
Articles of Confederation
. The Articles were
for a central government, however, and the states meet again in
to try and fix them.
is the heart of the American idea. It created a
, where power is shared between states and the central government.
The federal government was divided into 3 branches:
(an elected President),
(the Supreme Court and other federal courts) and the
(two houses of elected officials).
The Bill of Rights
After the Constitution was
, (agreed to by 9 of the 13 states), the first thing the first Congress did was add the
first 10 amendments
, known as the
Bill of Rights.
These amendments grant everyone in the country the right to
, the right to
, the right to
protection from the government
, and the right to
trial by jury
. Many of these ideas came directly from the ideas of the Enlightenment in France.