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Parts of Speech, Sentence Structure, Run-On Sentences, and Fragments

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Stephanie Hunter

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of Parts of Speech, Sentence Structure, Run-On Sentences, and Fragments

Parts of Speech, Sentence Structure, Fragments & Run-on Sentences Writing Complete & Correct Sentences A complete sentence in the English MUST have a subject and a verb. Sometimes it must also have an object. Do not confuse a prepositional phrase with a subject or verb! Sentence Structure Fragments are incomplete sentences.

There are three types. Fragments A run-on sentence is two or more sentences that have been incorrectly joined.

There are two types. Run-On Sentences What are the four main parts of speech? Parts of Speech Nouns: People, Places, Things, Ideas & Gerunds Running is good exercise.
I hate running! Adjectives: Describe nouns What adjectives can you use to describe this student? Verbs Action Words "To be" is the most common verb What is happening in this photo? Adverbs Describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs The really angry dog chases the cat
very quickly through the pumpkins. A gerund is a noun that looks like a verb. Create a gerund by adding -ing to the end of a verb.

Walk + ing = Walking (noun) The subject completes the action Ben throws the ball to Joe. The verb is the action Ben throws the ball to Joe The object receives the action Ben throws the ball to Joe. A prepositional phrase usually adds extra information, but it's often not the subject or verb. Ben throws the ball
to Joe. To identify a preposition, just add the word to this sentence:

The bird flew ______________ the tree.

If the sentence makes sense, the word is a preposition. Missing subject: Students don't study. And fail.

Missing verb: Students not studying and failing.

Subordinate sentence: Because students don't study. They fail. You can fix a fragment two ways:

1. Join the fragment to a complete sentence:

Because students don't study, they fail.

2. Rewrite the fragment by adding or deleting:

Students don't study and fail.

Students are not studying and they are failing. Practice by fixing these fragments:

1. When winter comes early.

2. Whales in the Arctic Ocean.

3. Trapped in the Arctic Ocean. 1. A comma splice: Students don't study, they fail.

2. Fused sentence: Students don't study they fail. 1. Use a period to separate the sentences:

Students don't study. They fail. 2. Use a coordinating conjunction and a comma

Students don't study, so they fail. Coordinating conjunctions are:

For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So 3. Use a semicolon and possibly an adverbial conjunction:

Students don't study; they fail

Students don't study; therefore, they fail.
(S1 + ; + AC + , + S2) Some common adverbial conjunctions are:

However
Therefore
For example
In fact
Morever 4. Use a subordinating conjunction: When students don't study, they fail.

Students fail when they don't study. Some common subordinating conjunctions are:

Because
If
When
Although
That Fix these run-on sentences:

1. The hurricane intensified, it turned toward land.

2. Thomas Edison invented the mircrophone in addition he created a superior storage battery.

3. A shark's skeleton is cartilage it doesn't have a bone its body.
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