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Transcript of Reading Review
Bringing together of unrelated things Most funny poems have two things in common: Rhythm
Rhyme Limericks! A limerick is a poem of five lines. The first, second, and fifth lines have three rhythmic beats and rhyme with one another. The third and fourth lines have two rhythmic beats and rhyme with one another. They are always light-hearted, humorous poems. Propaganda Stereotype: a fixed idea about all members of a group.
Stereotypes lead to prejudice: judging people based on their membership in a group.
Stereotype is a Rhetorical Fallacy: false or misleading statements in which the argument is weakened. Appeal to Fear: a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to create fear and prejudice toward a competitor. This is common in marketing and politics. Propaganda is a type of persuasion designed to keep us from thinking for ourselves.
Propaganda relies on appeals to our emotions rather than on logical arguments and reasoning.
Most propaganda consists of one-sided arguments. http://teachers2.wcs.edu/middle/ssms/shelbym/_layouts/PowerPoint.aspx?PowerPointView=ReadingView&PresentationId=/middle/ssms/shelbym/Lists/Calendar/Attachments/428/Types%20of%20Propaganda.pptx&Source=http%3A%2F%2Fteachers2%2Ewcs%2Eedu%2Fmiddle%2Fssms%2Fshelbym%2Fdefault%2Easpx%3FCalendarDate%3D1%252F9%252F2013&DefaultItemOpen=1 Stereotype Persuasion: having a strong belief in something and wanting to try and make other people believe in your belief.
Premise: a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument.
Bias: an inclination of temperament or outlook; especially- a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgement- prejudice. More Propaganda! Fallacy: a mistaken idea or error; a flaw in reasoning. Logical Fallacies: appeal to fear, personal attack, false dilemma, false analogy. Rhetorical Fallacies: types: stereotypes and Ad hominem Logical Fallacies! Personal Attack: committed when a person substitutes abusive remarks for evidence when attacking another person's claim or claims. This line of "reasoning" fallacious because the attack is directed at the person making the claim, not the claim itself. Fallacies! False Dilemma: a limited number of options (usually two) is given, while in reality there are more options, It is a legitimate use of the "or" operator. Putting issues or opinions into the "black and white" terms is a common instance of this fallacy. False Analogy: an informal fallacy applying to an inductive argument. It consists of an error in the substance of an argument (the content of the analogy itself), not error in the logical structure. It is a elaborate comparison to two things that are too dissimilar. Rhetorical Fallacies! Stereotypes- We have covered this :) Ad Hominem: this attempts to discredit an idea by attacking another person's character rather than his or her argument. This technique involves encouraging people to think or act in some way because other people are doing so. The bandwagon approach appeals to the conformists in all of us- no one wants to be left out of what is perceived to be a popular trend Testimonial MORE! Testimonial is when you use a popular figure to promote a cause or product.
Some testimonials are form original people who have used a product and think its great. This is called PLAIN FOLK, which is a persuasive technique.
Think of some examples where you've seen this type of technique being used such as cleaning products and facial products Which is it? Name-Calling Propaganda! Loaded Words/Language Extra Information This technique involves using words with strong positive or negative connotations, or associations.
Any use of words that is CHARGED with emotion. This is used to incite fears and prejudices in their hearers in the intent that bad names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a group or set of beliefs or ideas. Instead of using reasons and evidence to support an argument name calling uses labels to arouse negative feelings toward someone. "Our product is so good, everybody is buying it!" Bandwagon "Friends: vote for me in the next election. I promise not to be a bureaucrat, like my opponent, but a true public servant. Loaded Words "I love my new Ford Focus and I wouldn't drive anything else!" Testimonial Bandwagon Deductive Reasoning Example! Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Example! Inductive Reasoning! Argument and Persuasion Support Persuasion in Advertizing Visual Techniques Sound Techniques Reasoning! Inductive Reasoning: is reasoning from a specific case and deriving a general rule. It draws inferences from observations in order to make generalizations. Formula: I= Specific to General I= S-> G 90% of humans are left handed Joe is a human Therefore, the probability of Joe being left handed is 90% It starts with a general cause and deduces specific instances. Formula: D= General to Specific D= G->S All men are mortal Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal In formal speaking, and writing, an argument is NOT emotional. It is a claim supported by reasons and evidence. Claim- is a writer's position on a problem or issue; a claim may be directly stated or implied. The strength of an argument depends not on the claim, but on the support. Support: the reasons and evidence that are used to prove the claim. Counterargument: arguments made to address points that someone with an apposing view might raise. More to Know! A target audience is one that sponsors want to persuade. Members of a target audience share certain features; such as age, gender, ethnic background, values, or lifestyles. Advertisements usually contain both explicit and implicit messages. Explicit Message: the purpose of the product being sold. Implicit Message: idea of image that the product is associated with. Visual techniques
Sound Techniques Notice the use of color, which can create certain feelings about a product. Think about how commercials are edited- each shot is carefully selected and arranged to create a persuasive effect. Pace: length of time each shot stays on the screen, This shows visual techniques by the way it uses _______. COLOR!!