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Transcript of Climate
Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time.
Factors that affect climate:
3. Mountain Ranges
4. Oceans and Large Bodies of Water
Near large water bodies, temperatures are moderated and precipitation increases
Visit the link below for an interactive on factors that control climate.
and Review Book pgs 236-240
A city that is inland (landlocked) is far away from any moisture source. Precipitation is low and temperatures show a great range!
g.If Reykjavik and Yakutsk have the same latitude, how/why are their climates different?
Lake-effect snow forms in the winter when cold air masses move over warmer lake waters. As the warm lake water heats the bottom layer of air, lake moisture evaporates into the cold air. Since warm air is lighter and less dense than cold air, it rises and begins to cool.
5. Ocean Currents
pg 4 ESRT
h. Which city has the warmest climate? Why?
D- warm current
6. Proximity to moisture belt
El Niño (ENSO) and La Niña disrupt weather patterns because they change normal ocean surface temperatures.
7. Monsoons affect India. Larger landmass= larger land/sea breeze!
Is the climate changing?
The hole in the ozone layer is NOT the same as the greenhouse effect!
The Ozone LAYER protects us from some of the sun's harmful Ultraviolet
rays. It is in the STRATOSPHERE!
Ozone in Earth’s Atmosphere
Ozone is a special form of oxygen. Unlike the oxygen we breathe, which is composed of two atoms of oxygen, ozone is composed of three atoms of oxygen. A concentrated ozone layer between 10 and 30 miles above Earth’s surface absorbs some of the harmful ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun. The amount of ultraviolet
reaching Earth’s surface is directly related to the angle of incoming solar radiation. The greater the Sun’s angle of insolation, the greater the amount of ultraviolet light that reaches Earth’s surface. If the ozone layer were completely destroyed, the ultraviolet light reaching Earth’s surface would most likely increase human health problems, such as skin cancer and eye damage.
m. Explain how this volcanic eruption could have caused the general decrease in temperature shown by the graph. Review the previous 2 slides if needed!
— Dust from the volcanic eruption carried high in the atmosphere reflected and reduced the sunlight reaching Earth's surface.
— The eruption caused a decrease in atmospheric transparency.
— Ash blocks insolation from reaching Earth's surface.
Scientists agree that every mass extinction in Earth's history happened because of rapid climate change.
Be on the lookout for a mini research paper assignment, which will be due in May :)
p. What events can (and have throughout history) cause the climate to change so rapidly that living things cannot adapt to their new environment?
a. How can there be snow at the equator?
temperature range for that year.
c. Find the average temperature range for Las Vegas in °F (convert).
d. How does the range compare to Port Washington's?
e. Which city has more annual precipitation?
f. Make a one sentence comparison of the two cities climates!
j. Do you think this graph represents "climate" or "weather"? Explain
k. What is your interpretation of this graph?
l. Remember what this means for climate? Explain
What are the possible consequences of each?
RANGE= highest - lowest
i. Why does El Niño make for a stormier season? (Especially cyclones in the Pacific! )
You do not have to answer this question at this time. Look at the evidence on the following slides and be prepared to answer in class
to the sun?
what if the earth is
What if the Earth is
tilted more... less?
n. In which layer of the atmosphere is most water vapor found? Name the other greenhouse gases.
Scientists believe that high-flying airplanes and the discharge of fluorocarbons from spray cans are affecting the composition of the ozone. "CFCs" are also a greenhouse gas. Even though the Greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer are different issues, they are related.
increases atmospheric transparency
Remember, ash are one kind of condensation nuclei!
Precipitation cleans the air.
Possible consequences of climate change
sea-level rise is NOT a temporary flood!
The orographic effect
THE OZONE LAYER:
Greenhouse gases TRAP
However, NY usually has warmer and drier winters
During El Nino Events
are driven by the planetary winds
curve because of Coriolis
Vostok Petit Data
q. Why is this one of the most important topics we learn in Earth Science?