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TASC Workshop - Document Analysis & Activities

For the TASC Workshop - 2014 April 24 - Buffalo NY
by

Matt Herbison

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of TASC Workshop - Document Analysis & Activities

Discussion

Primary Sources

Discussion





What's your
Muddiest Point
so far?
How would you work with
this topic and these primary sources?
Discussion
Oral History Interview with James and Nannie Pharis, December 5, 1978

ALLEN TULLOS:
When you started to work, what do remember about that, the mill, working, life?
JAMES PHARIS:
I don't remember too much individual things. I was about nine or ten years old when I got that hand hurt right there.
ALLEN TULLOS:
How did that happen?
JAMES PHARIS:
I was riding on an elevator rope in the mill. Me and another boy was getting the quills in the mill. He was on the bottom floor and I was on the top floor. We'd go to the spinning room to empty our quills out. The first one who would get up there would ride the elevator rope. He'd be down on the bottom floor. We'd ride the elevator rope up to the pulley and slide back down. I was riding one day and was looking round over the spinning room and my hand got caught under the wheel. That thing was mashed into jelly, all of it was just smashed all to pieces. They took me out. It happened pretty much after lunch one day. It started up after dinner, they gave forty-five minutes for dinner. They took me down to the company store—the drug store was in the front end of the company store—never even notified my people or nothing. Set me down in the front of that company store. There were only two doctors in town at that time, and both of them was out of town on country calls. I sat there until about four o'clock. Nobody done nothing in the world for me. My people was never notified. Nothing said about it. You tear yourself all to pieces then, nothing said about getting anything out of it. The doctor put a board on my hand there, had my fingers straight. One night the board slipped around the back and that thing crooked down. It's been that way ever since. Never even got straight.
ALLEN TULLOS:
Those things happened a good deal?
JAMES PHARIS:
Oh, yes, back in them days. Nothing never said about it then.
NANNIE PHARIS:
He could have sued them nowadays.
JAMES PHARIS:
You couldn't do nothing. Poor people like us, no use in us suing.
NANNIE PHARIS:
They didn't have anything to sue for, actually.
JAMES PHARIS:
No use in suing. Poor people didn't stand a chance. If a rich man wanted…. They had a system back in them days. One company owned all the mills was around there. They had agreements with one another. If they said not to hire you they wouldn't hire you. So, if you done anything—anything the company didn't like— they'd just fire you and tell the rest of them not to hire you. So, there you'd be. People who lived under them circumstances, back in them days, was nothing they could do. So they didn't try to do nothing.

ALLEN TULLOS:
Would these sorts of accidents happen to one group more than another, or children more than grown-ups? Who would be most likely to have an accident in the mill?
JAMES PHARIS:
So many little children working then, little bitty children. Naturally they had more accidents than the grown-ups would.

ALLEN TULLOS:
You hear people talking now, they've found about these diseases that you get by breathing some of the dust and things like that.
JAMES PHARIS:
Nothing ever said about that in my day.
NANNIE PHARIS:
There was plenty of dust.
JAMES PHARIS:
There was plenty of tuberculosis back in them days, too.
ALLEN TULLOS:
Did they ever think that tuberculosis had to do with the mill?
JAMES PHARIS:
No, never crossed their mind. They just had it, that's all.
ALLEN TULLOS:
What about your other brothers and sisters, did they have any kind of accidents like that?
JAMES PHARIS:
No, not a one of them ever did have an accident. It was my fault. The supervisors in the mill shouldn't have allowed it, and they wouldn't allow it nowadays. I done that for six months there, ride that rope for six months before I got hurt. I know nobody never did tell me to stop it.

ALLEN TULLOS:
Your brothers and sisters, or you, did you go to any kind of school at all?
JAMES PHARIS:
I graduated from third grade with honors. I went to school two years and graduated the third grade. I made two grades in one year. I didn't go to school but two years but made three grades.
Transcript of Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916

Sixty-fourth Congress of the United States of America; At the First Session,
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the sixth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen.

AN ACT To prevent interstate commerce in the products of child labor,
and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That no producer, manufacturer, or dealer shall ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, any article or commodity the product of any mine or quarry situated in the United States, in which within thirty days prior to the time of the removal of such product therefrom children under the age of sixteen years have been employed or permitted to work, or any article or commodity the product of any mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment, situated in the United States, in which within thirty days prior to the removal of such product therefrom children under the age of fourteen years have been employed or permitted to work, or children between the ages of fourteen years and sixteen years have been employed or permitted to work more than eight hours in any day, or more than six days in any week, or after the hour of seven o'clock postmeridian, or before the hour of six o'clock antemeridian: Provided, That a prosecution and conviction of a defendant for the shipment or delivery for shipment of any article or commodity under the conditions herein prohibited shall be a bar to any further prosecution against the same defendant for shipments or deliveries for shipment of any such article or commodity before the beginning of said prosecution.
Using different points of view to explore and understand the context of the time and the repercussions
Learning Goals & Questions & Assessment

Restricted free immigration of Chinese into US from 1882-1943
Required Chinese already settled in US to obtain re-entry certification by submitting paperwork and securing witnesses to prove their right to be in the US
Topic: Chinese Exclusion Act
Locating these sources

Primary Sources
Specific to this activity:
Using evidence from the Pharis oral history interview, what were some of the conditions that children faced working in mills and factories?
How did the experiences of child laborers have an effect on the Child Labor Reform movement?

(Add-on) How were the photographs taken by Lewis Hine used to support the cause of Child Labor Reform movement?

Common Core
Evaluate differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing individuals' claims, reasoning, and evidence.
(CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.6)

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary (and secondary sources), connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.1)

Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2)
Grade 9
Analyze sources used for historical narrative (primary versus secondary)
Analyze and interpret fact versus opinion, cause and effect
Make conclusions based on evidence

Grade 12
Synthesize and evaluate historical sources
Evaluate sources and corroborate
Synthesize historical questions


Learning Goals & Questions & Assessment
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916
First child labor bill.
Used the government's ability to regulate
interstate commerce
to regulate child labor.
Banned the sale of products
from any
factory, shop, or cannery
that employed children
under the age of 14
,
from any
mine
that employed children
under the age of 16
, and from
any facility that had children
under the age of 16 work at night
or for
more than 8 hours
during the day.
Struck down by Supreme Court in 1918

Topic: Child Labor Reform
Document Analysis
Activity 1

Pharis oral history transcript
Learning Goals & Guiding Questions
Document Analysis
Activity 2
At what point would you develop the context for the documents? Before, after, during?
How would you design an activity around these documents (oral history + photos)?
What kind of assessments would you do with your students?
What learning objectives would you have for your students?
What would you do differently if you used the Hine photos as the core sources rather than the oral history?
North Carolina textile mill
by Lewis Hine for the National Child Labor Committee, 1910
Bibb Mill No. 1, Macon, Georgia
by Lewis Hine for the National Child Labor Committee, 1909
Analyze the Pharis oral history
1 - What type of historical document is the source? (Summarizing)

2 - What are some of the conditions and dangers in the mill? Give evidence from the interview. (Summarizing)

3 - What was happening within the immediate and broader context at the time the source was produced? (Contextualizing)

4 - How do you think the Pharises feel about child labor and safety regulations? (Inferring)

5 - Considering that the 'hand incident' happened over 70 years before the interview, what effect has that had on the Pharises point of view and perspective? (Inferring)

6 - What additional evidence beyond the source is necessary to answer the historical question? (Monitoring)
What do you know? What do you wish you knew?
http://bit.ly/QpmI45
Locating these sources

Specific to this activity:
What were some of the arguments for and against Chinese immigration restrictions? What evidence do you find from the sources?
How was Chinese Exclusion applied according to the background of an individual?
What effect did Chinese Exclusion have on families?

Common Core
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.3)

Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.6)

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7)

Historical empathy discussion
[Anyone want to go into this? Slide available.]
Learning Goals & Guiding Questions
Historical empathy
- process of understanding people in the past by contextualizing their actions (Barton and Levstik)

Foster (1999) finds that historical empathy possesses six qualities:
Historical empathy is a process that leads to an understanding and an explanation of why people in the past acted as they did
It involves an appreciation of historical context and chronology in the evaluation of past events
It is reliant upon a thorough analysis and evaluation of historical evidence
It involves an appreciation of the consequences of actions perpetrated in the past
It demands an intuitive sense of a bygone era and an implicit recognition that the past if different from the present.
Requires a respect, appreciation and sensitivity in relation to complex human actions and achievements

How would you work with
this topic and these primary sources?
Discussion
At what point would you develop the context for the documents? Before, after, during?
How would you design an activity around these documents (cartoons and case file)?
What kind of assessments would you do with your students?
What learning objectives would you have for your students?
What secondary sources would you use to support these documents? What additional types of primary sources?
Historical Empathy
Core document for this activity
http://bit.ly/1r4LQtV
Analyze the primary sources
1 - Who are the creators of these sources? (Summarizing)

2 - Why were the cartoons published? What was going on in the US with immigrants at the time? (Contextualizing) What types of publications do you think they were published in? (Inferring)

3 - Why were the case file records produced? (Contextualizing) What is suggested by the records as far as requirements for merchant Chinese to bring family members to the US? (Inferring)

4 - What do you make of the language and tone of the Inspector's letter? (Inferring)

5 - What additional evidence beyond the sources is necessary to understand the impact of Chinese Exclusion on families? (Monitoring)

6 - Taking what you've gathered from the cartoons and the case file, do you think the Chinese Exclusion Act had its intended effects?
1882
1881
Affidavit of Lee See Nam with photographs of his wife and daughter., 10/09/1902
Letter transmitting the approved report of the status of Lee See Nam., 11/19/1902
TeachArchives.org
(and others):

Generalized approaches are not as good as "specific and directed prompts" tailored for the learning objectives of the one activity.
SCIM-C
www.historicalinquiry.com/scim/

S
ummarizing
C
ontextualizing
I
nferring
M
onitoring
C
orroborating

6 C's

Content
- Main Idea: Describe in detail what
you see.
Citation
- Author/Creator: When was this
created?
Context
- What is going on when this document
was created?
Connections
- Prior Knowledge: Link this source
to others.
Communication
- Point-of-View or Bias: Is this
source reliable?
Conclusions
- How does this source contribute
to our understanding of history?

6 C's (UC Irvine History Project)
www.humanities.uci.edu/history/ucihp
National Archives generalized approach
www.docsteach.org/resources

4 steps:
Type?
Unique characteristics?
Creator & content (5 Ws)?
Rephrase document.


WDYK-WDYWYK

What do you know?
What do you wish you knew?

The fundamental skill for
working with
historical primary sources

Document Analysis
These slides:
bitly.com/TASCWKSPDA
(all capital letters)
Document analysis
Generalized approaches

Document analysis
Generalized approaches

Document analysis
Generalized approaches

Document analysis
Generalized approaches

Document analysis
Better to
not generalize
your approach
Doris' theme:
Engage versus illustrate and primary vs secondary vs context
Full transcript