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Guneet J

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Vertabrates

Puffer Fish!!!
Puffer fishes have a small mouth and a tube shaped body. They also have relatively small fins. When puffer fish puff up, they are almost spheres. Puffer fish range in size from just a few inches long to almost 2 feet long. Some species of puffer fish have spines on their body, but many do not. The skin of a puffer fish is very elastic and can stretch well.
By: Khushi, Guneet
and Sukhmani :)
Body Temperature
Puffer fishes are warm-blooded. Most should be kept around 76-78 degrees. Inside the tank should be 25 degrees Celsius-28 degrees Celsius with hardness of about 8-12 degrees.
Puffer fish use camouflage if in danger. The only natural enemy of a puffer fish is the shark, and the moray eel. The physical adaptations of a puffer fish is their big spikes, called dicks. They help them defeat any prey they might have.
Puffer fish can puff up to
two or three times its size!!!
Fun Fact!!!
How it Breathes
Puffer fish breathe exclusively through their gills, like most fish. This allows them to obtain oxygen from the water.
A Puffer fish is one beautiful and hardy fish suitable for large salt water tank. They are friendly but poisonous as well so be careful with them.
Puffer fish reproduce when the male slowly pushes the female to the surface of the water. Spawning occurs after this, and the eggs float in the water. It only takes 4 days for them to hatch.
Structural Characteristics
How it feeds
It's fascinating to watch a puffer fish eat.
Most other fish seem to nibble on their food, but
our puffer fish seem to swallow it's entire prey in one gulp! Sometimes it just takes food straight from other fish's mouths.
Circulatory System!
The heart, all the arteries, the veins, and the lungs make up the circulatory system. The heart pumps oxygenated blood around the body through the aorta, and de-oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the vena cava. After a few more steps, the heart pumps the rest of the body.
The Platypus is among natures most unlikely
animals. The platypus is a mix of a duck, a beaver and a otter. A platypus is unlike any other mammal because it lays eggs.
A platypus has webbed feet like a duck
and a flat tail like a beaver. The male also has venom.
A platypus is half the size of a house cat and will
reach an average length of 44cm and weigh up to
0.9kg. The brain of the platypus is small. The fur of platypus is water proof.
Breeding takes place in late winter/early spring, earlier in the north of the range. 1-3 eggs are laid (usually 2). After two weeks, the female curls around the eggs for incubation.
One puffer fish has enough poison
to kill 30 people!!!
Fun Fact!!!
Puffer fish are also called blow fish, swell fish, fugu, and globe fish!!!
Body Temperature
In the late 1890's, a scientist reported a body temperature for the platypus of around 25 degrees Celsius. The platypus did have a low body temperature when compared with other mammals, it was capable of maintaining this temperature over a range of air temperature.
Fun Fact!!!!
Platypuses do not have teeth.
They chew gravel to break down
their food!!!!!!
The platypus is uniquely adapted to live in a semi-aquatic environment. It has: webbed feet with a retracting webbed membrane which can expose the claws, enabling the platypus to effectively dig burrows into river banks for shelter, and the webbing membrane reacts for that purpose. it spreads between it's toes when it needs to swim.
How it Breathes
Being a mammal, a platypus breathes using it's lungs, nostrils, and respiratory system. Unlike marine mammals (dolphins and whales) it does not have a blowhole on top of it's head. The platypus is able to hold its breath for up to 2 minuets underwater when diving for food! It may make hundreds of dives in order to find food for a single feeding!!! Platypuses hold their breath up to 5-6 minuets underwater when threatened!
Structural Characteristics
Circulatory System
A platypus has a closed double loop circulatory system. They have blood vessels, veins, arteries, and lungs. The heart is a four chambered heart (2 atria and 2 ventricles). The blood starts in their lungs and goes to the left atrium and to the left ventricle, then the blood leaves the heart and travels to the body where it loses its oxygen. The deoxygenated blood reenters the heart and travels to the right atrium and then to the right ventricle where its pumped to the lungs.
Fun Fact!!!
Male platypuses have spurs
on their back legs!!!
Spur- a poison-filled spike on the back foot
Humming Bird!!!
Hummingbirds are small, colorful birds. Their name comes from the fact that they flap their wings so fast (about 80 times per second) that they make a humming noise! They can also fly upside down!
The hummingbirds body parts are: the bill, chin, throat, chest, feet, tail, under tail coverts, rump, wing, auricular, and the crown. Hummingbirds are small. They are 2-8 inches (5-20 cm) long. Most hummingbirds have bright, colorful feathers.
Hummingbirds breed in late march. The males attempt to attract the females by flying through the air and then dives down at top speed. If the female is attracted, they mate. Once the mating is over, The female locates a spot for her nest and then starts to build it. After it is built, the female lays about 1 or 2 eggs. Next, the female will lay on the eggs for 14-16 days until they hatch.
Fun Fact!!!
Bee hummingbirds are the worlds tinniest birds!
The adaptation of hummingbirds include: a long bill, which enables them to feed on nectar deep down in cupped flowers. The lower part of the hummingbird's bill is flexible. Their pectoral muscles are made up of almost 100% type 1 muscle fibers which are better for the birds endurance.
Body Temperature
A hummingbirds body temperature is 105-108 degrees F (40.5 degrees C), but at night it is lowered as much as 30 degrees F (20 degrees C).
How it breathes
Hummingbirds breathe from their lungs. A hummingbird has two lungs. It will breathe an average of 250 times per minute.
Structural characteristics
The Circulatory system of a humming is similar to humans because both have four-chambered hearts, two atria and two ventricles. Some of the arteries and veins are also similar, or at least have the same name. However, hummingbird hearts are the largest if all living animals relative to their body mass (1.75-2.5%) because of the demands of their flight. The resting heart rate of a hummingbird is 480 beats per minuet, and can go up to 1,260 beats per minuet.
Fun Fact!!!
The name "hummingbird" comes from the sound of the birds' beating wings.
Red-Eyed Tree Frog!
Red Eyed Tree Frogs have
BRIGHT red eyes.
They also have funny looking orange toes.They are also green and have yellow stripes on their side. They are definitely one of the most beautiful species.

Red eyed tree frog's most notable adaptation is it's beautiful coloration. These frogs are nocturnal and spend most of their days camouflaged on the underside of a leaf.
Red eyed tree frogs have neon green bodies, bulging red eyes and beautiful blue streaks. Red eye tree frogs have suction cups on their toes that helps them climb on the trees.
Red eyed tree frogs will lay clutches of eggs on the underside of a leaf that is standing above a water source. When the eggs hatch the fluid that was inside the eggs assists in washing the tadpoles down into the water.
Fun fact!
being green helps the red eye tree frog blend in with leafs
Body temperature
Red eyed tree frog's have a temperature range of 75-85F. It drops ten degrees at night! During breeding, they prefer the humidity level around 90%. The regular humidity of a red eyed tree frog is between 60-75%, it raises over the summer.
Structural Characteristics
Circulatory System!
A red eyed tree frog has a three-chambered heart. Their arteries pump oxygenated blood and heir veins pump deoxygenated blood. When they are under water, they use their skin to take in oxygen. When they are on land, they use their lungs.
How it feeds
Adult platypuses do not have teeth, so they chew their food by grinding it between horny plates on their upper and lower jaws.
How it feeds
A hummingbird feeds with its long beak. It either eats from a hummingbird feeder or flowers. Hummingbirds eat nectar from the flowers. Since they have long beaks, they can reach deep into the flower.
How it feeds!!
A red eyed tree frog feeds with its tongue. Their tongues are very stretchy and long. Every time a red eyed tree frog sees a fly, cricket, or moth, it sticks its tongue out and eats the fly, cricket, or moth. They will also eat other frogs!!
How it breathes
All frogs breathe through their mouths. The throat of a frog moves up and down which is causing air to be drawn in through, and pushed out from its nostrils.
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes. There are 32 known species of rattlesnakes. The rattle of a rattlesnake is found on the tip of its tail. The rattle tells the predators to back off!
All Rattlesnakes are tan, gray, or brown.
They grow between 3-4 feet. Snake
Scales are made up of keratin which is
what our nails are made up of. Rattlesnakes
have rattles on the end of their tail and a very distinct
neck. They have fairly large eyes with vertical pupils.
Fun fact
The rattle on the tail is empty
Rattlesnakes have heat sensing pits and hollow fangs for injecting venom. They also have other adaptations which is the rattle which warns the predator and scares them away, they are cold blooded, their scales which protect their body, and their fangs which help the rattlesnake bite their predator to poison them.
Body temperature
the body temperature of a rattlesnake is around 77o-89o. In Nevada, rattlesnakes are more active in the fall. Temperatures below 16oC make the rattlesnake all sluggish.
Fun fact
the rattle can be heart up to 60 feet away
Most rattlesnakes mate during
the summer or fall. The female can only
reproduce every 2 years. She will carry the eggs
inside her until they hatch so they are born alive.
How it feeds!
Rattlesnakes eat mice, rats,
gerbils, squirrels, rabbits, small birds,
eggs, and other small animals. They kill their
prey quickly with a venomous bite. Their venom can kill in 20 seconds.
How it breathes!
A rattlesnake breathes with only one lung. They have all the same organs we do.
Well bye now :)
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