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Nation-state, Identity and Media Policy

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Clare D-M

on 19 August 2013

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Transcript of Nation-state, Identity and Media Policy

Nation-state, Identity and Media Policy
Focus Countries: Bahrain and The Netherlands

The Netherlands
by Clare Devlin- Mahoney
for ICOM304 @ Macquarie University


Monarchy. State ruled by Sunni King

Sunni minority and Shi'ite majority


Lack of democracy

NO freedom of expression

Human rights violations
Recent History
1990s- protests against authoritarian regime

1999- Emir dies and Hamad (son) promises democratic reforms

2000's- Sunni minority marginalises Shia majority

Discrimination in public sector

Political Naturalisation

2011- Peaceful protests w. majority of people present (nation state not representing them)

'State of National Safety'
* violence
* media suppression
*Saudi military arrive
* deportation
State Media control in Bahrain
*Lock out international media
*Arrest, torture bloggers, journalists and social media users
*Shut down only oppositional newspaper- nationalization
*Social media counter measures
*State run TV ONLY
- Song and dance of King
-spins on unrest
-confessions of tortured journalists
- messages to those against them "we will find you"
(Al Jazeera, 2011)

(Bahrain Press Association , 2012)
Social Media
International Image Control
*Employing PR companies- payroll list
-soften image, working towards unity
*suing PR companies

Reporters without Borders, 2013
'Don't leave news out of the Race' campaign
State control:
*F1 visas only
*amendment to penal code- higher penalties for defaming
*arrest journalists who try cover human rights- “violating the security and national welfare of Bahrain.”
Letter to Obama:

(Reporters without Borders, 2013)
Saudi Hegemony
U.S Hegemony
Bahrain Hegemony
Joint military agreement, oil,
business with Saudi Arabia
in return for silence

Tom Squitieri
Amber Lyon Whisteblower
World Freedom of Press Index
Ranked 165 out of 179 countries, fell 66 places in last 4 years
Freedom of Communications
- at risk of arrest, detainment, torture, forced apologies/confessions
- control over what content covered
- no defamation of king, symbols
-monolpy newspapers
-State owned TV
- social media monitored

Freedom of Access (diverse, high quality, available to all, avoid social exclusion, receive and send)
- State owned media only
- "technologies of freedom" (ie. internet, social media) monitored, used to arrest, incite, counter- responses
- journalists targeted
- international journalists denied, pressured
-Paid PR internationally

Control/ Accountability
No laW reg media and establishing freedoms
Calls for accountability from:
- BICI report
- Reporters without Borders
- Al Jazeera
3 concept model- (Cuilenburg & Mc Quail, 2003)
* $40,000 per month from Bahrain
*created webpages, eg: BahrainStories.com, ExploreBahrain.org and BahrainFacts.org and other web domains, fb pages
*letters, opinion pieces, interviews, news articles
*High quality of life
*External Pluralism
*Consensus Democracy
*Preserve Language and Culture?
*Media Freedom and Independence

*Media Act 2008
*Remnants of Pillarization
*Media commission oversees regulation not gov't
*Constitution based
*Law as simple as possible:
- not prevent disruption of free market
- no censorship
*Television without Frontiers EU development
*Non-disclosure for journalists
*The Press Fund- stimulate media diversity
*gov't limited concentration in market, max 35%
Media Values
- news monetized instead of own public value
- foreign companies taking more revenue

* Integration/National Identity
-post 9/11 Multicultural sensitivities
-Islam vs. liberal views of Netherlands

*media concentration
-more homogenous?

2002: Murder of Pim Fortuyn
2004: Murder of Theo Van Gogh
2009: Censorship of Royal Family photos
Functions that public broadcasting is to fulfill:

*It should provide a balanced view of Dutch society, representing all social and religious groupings.

*Its content should be varied, and of high quality.

*It should make an effort to reach the population at large as well as make provisions for all age groups and residents of varying (sub)cultural identities.

*Its content should be accessible for all, and produced independently from either state or commercial interventions.
Media Act 2008
Article 7 Constitution:

“Nobody needs permission in advance to make thoughts or feelings public use of the press, except everybody’s responsibility according to the law.”
"radio and Tv are to be regulated by law"
(Reporters without Borders, 2009)
National broadcasters may not find themselves
in a worse position than competing foreign broadcasters.
Media Policy Priorities of the Dutch Media Authority in 2013
(Kos, 2013)
Press Freedom Index

*Media Independence

*Environment and

*Legislative Framework


(Bahrain Press Association , 2012)
(Al Jazeera, 2011)
(Bahrain Watch, 2012)
(Hanne, 2012)
(Reuters, 2011)
(Squitieri, 2011)
(Bahrain Press Association , 2012)
(Reporters Without Borders, 2013)
(Lulu, 2011)
(Bahrain Press Association , 2012)
(Reporters without Borders, 2013)
Bahrain References

(Squitieri, 2. (2011, October 5). A Very Fine House. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Huffington Post.

Al Jazeera. (2011, August 11). Bahrain: The social media battle continues. Retrieved from Al Jazeera: The Stream: http://stream.aljazeera.com/story/bahrain

Bahrain Press Association . (2012). Silence is a War Crime: Annual Report. London: Bahrain Press Association.

Bahrain Watch. (2012). PR Watch. Retrieved 8 2013, 12, from Bahrain Watch: https://bahrainwatch.org/pr/qorvis.php

Cuilenberg, J. V., & McQuail, D. (2003). "Media Policy Paradidm Shifts" Towards a new communications policy paradigm. European Journal of Communcation , 18 (2), 181-207.

Hanne, J. (2012, May 25). The West's Blind Spot in Bahrain. Retrieved August 13, 2013, from World Policy Blog: http://www.aec.gov.au/election/nsw/files/nsw-gvt.pdf

Lulu, T. (2011, April 10). Saudi Hegemony vs. the Arab Spring. Retrieved August 13, 2013, from Jadaliyya: http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/1212/saudi-hegemony-vs.-the-arab-spring

Reporters without Borders. (2013, April 13). "DON’T LEAVE NEWS OUT OF THE RACE". Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Reporters Without Borders: http://en.rsf.org/bahrain-don-t-leave-news-out-of-the-race-18-04-2013,44388.html

Reporters without Borders. (2013, January 24). PRESIDENT OBAMA URGED TO HELP RELEASE BAHRAINI HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS AND ACTIVISTS. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Reporters without Borders: http://en.rsf.org/bahrain-president-obama-urged-to-help-24-01-2013,43952.html

Reuters. (2011, June 15). Bahrain to sue British paper over protest articles. Retrieved August 13, 2013, from Arabian Business: http://www.arabianbusiness.com/bahrain-sue-british-paper-over-protest-articles-405257.html

Squitieri, T. (2011, October 2). A Lighter Shade of Gray. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tom-squitieri/a-lighter-shade-of-gray_b_990071.html

Squitieri, T. (2011, September 21). It's Not The Same Old Story. Retrieved August 15, 12013, from Huffington Post: Tom Squitieri

(IRIS Merlin, 2009)
(Puustinen, Thomas, & Pantti, 2008)
(IRIS Merlin, 2009)
(Puustinen, Thomas, & Pantti, 2008)
(Puustinen, Thomas, & Pantti, 2008)
(Vasterman & Bakker, 2008)
(Vasterman & Bakker, 2008)
(Open Society Foundations, 2011)
(Open Society Foundations, 2011)
(Open Society Foundations, 2011)
(Pantti & Wieten, 2005)

Reporters without Borders, 2013)
Netherlands References

ComScore. (2011). Netherlands Ranks #1 in Internet Penetration. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from ComScore: http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2011/4/The_Netherlands_Ranks_number_one_Worldwide_in_Penetration_for_Twitter_and_LinkedIn

IRIS Merlin. (2009). Netherlands Media Act 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2013, from Database of legal Information relevant to the audiovisual sector in Europe: http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/2009/3/article29.en.html

Kos, P. (2013). IRIS Merlin. Retrieved August 17, 2013, from Media Policy Priorities of the Dutch Media Authority in 2013: http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/2013/5/article34.en.html

New Media Trend Watch. (2012). Markets by Country: Netherlands. Retrieved August 17, 2013, from New Media Trend Watch: http://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/markets-by-country/10-europe/76-netherlands

Open Society Foundations. (2011). Mapping Digital Media:Netherlands. MDM Reference Series.

Pantti, M., & Wieten, J. (2005). Mourning Becomes the Nation: television coverage of the murder of Pim Fortuyn. Journalism Studies , 6 (3), 301-313.

Puustinen, L., Thomas, P., & Pantti, M. (2008). Mapping Media and Communication Research: The Netherlands. University of Helsinki. Helsinki: Communication Research Centre, Department of Communication; Helsingin Sanomat Foundation University of Helsinki.

Reporters Without Borders. (2013). 2013 WORLD PRESS FREEDOM INDEX: DASHED HOPES AFTER SPRING. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from Reporters Without Borders: http://en.rsf.org/press-freedom-index-2013,1054.html

Reporters without Borders. (2009, August 29). COURT FINDS AP GUILTY OF VIOLATING ROYAL FAMILY’S PRIVACY. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from Reporters Without Borders: http://en.rsf.org/netherlands-court-finds-ap-guilty-of-violating-28-08-2009,34332.html

Vasterman, P., & Bakker, P. (2008). Media Landscapes The Netherlands. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from European Journalism Centre: http://ejc.net/media_landscapes/the-netherlands

*ideal of nation state?
interests of nation, attempts to include all groups, ages, minorities
*Hegemonic values - liberal, free, tolerance, pluralism (European ideals)

Netherlands- no gov't owned TV or radio (Pillars--> different social groups)

No Party press- "enduring power of certain communitarian identifications and interest groups"

No media Tycoon

Constitution- no difference between citizen and non-citizen (opennes to international developments)
(Vasterman, 2008)
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