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Sexual Violence in Higher Education: Defining Responsibility and Embracing Prevention

This presentation briefly explores the issue of sexual violence in higher education, and focuses on the importance of prevention by highlighting some strategies colleges and universities can use to help educate their campus community.

Cherylan Lynch

on 24 April 2015

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Transcript of Sexual Violence in Higher Education: Defining Responsibility and Embracing Prevention

By The Numbers...

1 in 5 Women Will be the
victim of sexual assault in
their lifetime.

1 in 71 men will be the
victim of sexual assault
in their lifetime.

College-Age students are particularly
at risk With over 20% of students
directly victimized by Sexual violence.

90% of campus rapes are perpetrated by repeat offenders. Rape is a deliberate act of violence, not a "mis-communication"
The Lasting Impact of Sexual Violence
Victims of rape incur physical symptoms which include injuries (internal and external) sexually transmitted diseases and/or infections, chronic pain, and in some cases unplanned pregnancy. The emotional toll of sexual assault is devastating.

Rape survivors are also left to deal with mental disorders from the attack, which include but are not limited to depression, self-injury, eating disorders, sleep disorders, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and an increased risk for suicide.

Shifts in the victims safety perception after enduring a sexual assault, leaves the victim feeling vulnerable. The victims does not feel secure enough to discern who is trustworthy in her or his life. Survivors may feel a sense of numbness and be unable to respond to what has happened to her or him. She or he may be fearful, angry, hyper vigilant, and, unable to focus. She or he may be left with a feeling of not being in control of her or his life. Survivors at times also experience a detachment and uninterest to their usual daily living activities, and insecure about her or his future.
These laws are a
big help, but there is
still more work to be done.

peer-to-peer training and awareness efforts
Peer-to-peer training and awareness efforts allow students to connect to positive role models in their community and take a stand against violence together.
Possible solutions:
1. Add Sexual
Violence education to
the curriculum
Adding sexual violence education to the curriculum, is one way higher education institutions can reach every member of their campus community.
Sexual violence on campus is prevalent and intolerable.
Many laws place the burden of responsibility on institutions of higher education to eradicate these crimes.
The Jeanne Clery Act (1991)
The Clery Act was named after Jeanne Clery. Jeanne was a 19 year old freshman at Lehigh University in 1986. She brutally tortured, sexually assaulted and murdered in her residence hall room.
The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) (1994)
Requires survivors of sexual violence be better supported and protected.

Spurred the creation of the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

Has increased federal penalties for repeat sex offenders.

Ensures that survivors do not need to pay for their own sexual assault exams.

Has increased prosecution of crimes, as well as conviction rates and sentencing of offenders.

Allots special funding for Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners, or SANEs.
Title IX (1972)
Holds colleges and universities accountable for providing equal opportunity for men and women to participate in educational programs and activities.

Requires that every federally-funded school be responsible for preventing sex discrimination, including sexual harassment and sexual violence.

Institutions must have an appropriate plan in place for how they respond to reports of violations, and they must take immediate action to protect a victim’s right to continue their education.

Colleges and universities are required to have a Title IX Coordinator to handle reports of sexual discrimination, harassment and violence.
Jeanne Clery and her parents chose Lehigh for her higher education after reading about Lehigh's seemingly peaceful and safe environment. Later, Clery’s parents were devastated to find information regarding crime in the area was not widely dispersed on campus. As a result, they fought for more preventative measures, emergency notification, timely warnings.
It was later declared that the person responsible for Clery's death was a fellow student, named Josoph M. Henry.
2013 Update On the Clery Act:
The Campus SAVE Act
The act mandates prevention of sexual misconduct and related violence through introductory awareness programming and on-going education.
Requires that survivors of sexual violence be informed of their rights in writing. Some of these rights include:
The right to have campus authorities assist with report filing to law enforcement.
The right to avoid a hostile environment through institutional protective actions.
The rights to be provided contact information for on-campus and off-campus support, mental health care, legal assistance, advocate care and counseling.
2013 VAWA ReAuthorization

VAWA was reauthorized in 2013 to include protection provisions for more survivors. This re-authorization also introduced new requirements for higher education institutions to educate students about dating violence and record and respond to reports of this abuse.
Participate in National Movements
Participating in national movements gives students the opportunity to form ties with their community, support survivors of sexual violence, and enhance their campus culture.
According to Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) President and Founder Scott Berkowitz, "One of the most effective ways to prevent rape is to mobilize men and women on campus to join together in stopping perpetrators before they can commit a crime.”
The White House Task Force To Protect Students From Sexual Assault has formed programs to help students
and institutions better face the problem of sexual violence.

Multiple campaigns have been started, and the overwhelming message for higher education institutions is that prevention education
must be a priority.

Institutions can contribute to a decrease in sexual violence by making students aware that they are bystanders and educating them accordingly.
Focus on Bystanders
Green Dot

The premise behind Green Dot, is that if one were to look at a map, red dots would indicate instances of power-motivated violence.
Each person who chooses action, versus apathy, becomes a green dot, full of skills to prevent, intervene and help support those who are impacted by sexual violence.

Green Dot is available for middle schools, high schools, higher education institutions and community groups. Training for the Green Dot program is hosted by the requester in a smaller, conference-like format.

Training focuses on relationships, connections, skills and knowledge. Students of Green Dot learn to recognize potentially dangerous situations, engage in persuasive communication, and act when opportunities for intervention occur.

Green Dot is a social movement with a wealth of training opportunities for students.
Statistically, 60% of violent crimes have a bystander, but only 15% of bystanders choose to intervene.
Speak About It
Speak About It is a performance-based presentation encouraging students to talk about everything that comes with sexuality, with special emphasis on boundaries, consent and healthy relationships.
Speak About It started at Bowdoin College in 2009, and is now a non-profit group with three teams of actors, who perform a variety of skits, answer questions and host post-performance discussion.
By the conclusion of the one-hour skit, students are able to discuss a variety of sexual experiences with their peers, identify potentially risky situations, and intervene confidently and authentically, if given the opportunity.
Participating in national movements is often a manageable goal for institutions to begin with, as they are easier to plan and have ample support in place for first-time hosts.
Bystanders and survivors are joined together through a mutual desire for change and a a motivation to make a difference on their campus, and in the world around them.
Sponsored by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center.
Sexual Assault Awareness Month
This will send a clear message that sexual violence prevention is everyone's responsibility and clearly displays the values of the institution.
One option for higher education
institutions is EverFi's "Haven" program.
White Ribbon states, “Our vision is for a masculinity that embodies the best qualities of being human. We believe that men are part of the solution and part of a future that is safe and equitable for all people."

By focusing prevention efforts on men, may possibly help higher education institutions combat these statistics.
Statistics have proven that the majority of perpetrators regarding sexual violence, are men.
2. Educate Men
The White Ribbon Campaign is a social movement focusing on educating and involving men and boys.
White Ribbon offers presentations, trainings and workshops, as well as postcards, posters, “Education and Action Kits” and “Campaign in a Box” (White Ribbon, 2014).
White Ribbon campaign
Athough there is not a one-size-fits all solution, curriculum, event or program.
3. the most
effective way to help prevent sexual
assault and violence is to COMMIT TO
CULTURAL CHANGE ACROSS CAMPUS. Campus Policies must focus on and Be persistant on a variety of efforts.

It is clear that educational institutions must be committed to fostering and maintaining a campus culture that supports the safety of all students and addresses the need for open dialogue pertaining to the prevention of sexual violence.
These prevention efforts must be a part of the student experience and must be integrated into the curriculum both inside and outside the classroom.
The message must be clear: we do not tolerate sexual violence at our institution!
Are Available

Center for Disease Control's "Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice"
Fellow institutions experiencing success
Professional development organizations (NASPA, ACUHO, State Organizations, etc.)
Local, regional and national campaigns
Student focus groups
The White House's "Not Alone" campaign
Sexual violence prevention organizations
(RAINN, NSVRC, state, regional and
local response services, etc.)
If we all work together, we can make Changes happen. Thank you for participating in our campus' efforts to end sexual violence!
Law, Power, and Inequality
Ramapo College of NJ, Spring 2015
Presentation by
Cherylan, Paul, Erica, and Michael P.
(The White House Council on Women and Girls, 2014)
(Joyful Heart Foundation, 2014)
(Clery Center for Security on Campus, 2012b)
(Clery Center for Security on Campus, 2012a)
(The White House, n.d.)
(National Network To End Domestic Violence, 2014)
(Bloger, n.d.)
(The White House Council on Women and Girls, 2014)
(Lierman, 2014)
(Green Dot et. cetera Inc., 2010)
(Green Dot et. cetera Inc., 2010)
(Speak About It, 2014)
Performances are tailored to fit the needs of the institution, and can be made to work for orientation, sexual health activities, awareness days, student-staff groups, classes or any number of other settings.
(Center for Disease Control, 2014)
(National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2014)
Sexual Assault Awareness Month is the perfect opportunity to bring in local sexual health providers, sexual violence outreach groups and sexual assault advocacy services.
Sexual Assault Awareness Month began in 2001 and is observed annually in April. Throughout the month, awareness activities are hosted around the United States.
The campaign for 2015 is campus sexual violence prevention.
(EverFi, n.d.)
(The White House Council on Women and Girls, 2014).
(White Ribbon, 2014)
(Center for Disease Control, 2014)

Abbey, A., & Ph. (2002). Alcohol-Related sexual assualt: a common problem among college students. Department of Journal of Studies on Alcohol,

Anderson, N. (2014, July 1). Sex offense statistics show U.S. College reports are rising.
Retrieved from http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/page/local/sex-offenses-on-us-college-campuses/1077/

Bolger, D. (n.d.). Title IX: The Basics. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Know Your Title IX:

Center for Disease Control. (2014, April). Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Not Alone: Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice

Clery Center for Security on Campus. (2012a). Our History. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Clery Center for Security on Campus: http://clerycenter.org/our-history

Clery Center for Security on Campus. (2012b). The Campus Sexual Violence Education Act. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Clery Center for Security on Campus: http://clerycenter.org/campus-sexual-violence-elimination-save-act

EverFi. (n.d.). Haven: Understanding Sexual Assault. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from EverFi: http://www.everfi.com/haven

Green Dot et. cetera. Inc. (2010). The Green Dot. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Green Dot et. cetera: https://www.livethegreendot.com/index.html

Joyful Heart Foundation. (2014). Effects of Sexual Assault and Rape. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Joyful Heart Foundation: http://www.joyfulheartfoundation.org/learn/sexual-assault-rape/effects-sexual-assault-and-rape

Lierman, K. (2014, September 24). It's On Us, a Growing Movement to End Campus Sexual Assault. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from The White House Blog: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/09/24/its-us-growing-movement-end-campus-sexual-assault

National Network To End Domestic Violence. (2014). Violence Against Women Act. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from NNEDV Policy Issues: http://nnedv.org/policy/issues/vawa.html

National Sexual Violence Resource Center. (2014). Sexual Assault Awareness Month. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Sexual Assault Awareness Month: http://www.nsvrc.org/saam/sexual-assault-awareness-month-home

Office of Justice Programs. (2008, October 1). Sexual assualt of campus. Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/rape-sexual-violence/campus/Pages/laws.aspx

Speak About It. (2014). About Us. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from Speak About It: http://speakaboutitonline.com/

Washington Post http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/page/local/sex-offenses-on-us-college-campuses/1077/

The White House Council on Women and Girls. (2014, January 1). Rape and Sexual Assault: A Renewed Call To Action. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from The White House: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/sexual_assault_report_1-21-14.pdf

The White House. (n.d.). Factsheet: The Violence Against Women Act. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from
The White House: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/vawa_factsheet.pdf

White Ribbon. (2014). White Ribbon: Who We Are. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from White Ribbon: http://www.whiteribbon.ca/who-we-are/

Federal Laws are enacted to help protect student victims of rape:

Student Right-to-Know and Campus Security Act of 1990 (20 U.S.C. § 1092). Requires that schools annually disclose information about crime, including specific sexual crime categories, in and around campus. Also known as the Clery Act in honor of a student who was sexually assaulted and murdered on her campus in 1986. Read a history of the Clery Act or the complete text of the act Exit Notice.
Campus Sexual Assault Victims’ Bill of Rights of 1992. An amendment to the Clery Act requiring that schools develop prevention policies and provide certain assurances to victims. Amended again in 1998 to expand requirements, including the crime categories that must be reported. Read the text of the act Exit Notice.
Office of Justice Programs: National Institute of Justice. 2008
California Enacts the "Yes Means Yes" law in 2014

California law defines consensual sexual activity as, “the proposal requires all colleges taking student financial aid funding from the state to agree that in investigations of on campus sexual assaults, silence or lack of resistance does not imply a green light for sex, and that drunkenness is not an acceptable defense”

Sex offenses on
U.S. college campuses
Sexual Violence in Higher Education:
Focusing primarily on What the priorities for colleges & universities Should be,
as they institute new
policies for dealing with campus sexual assault.
Adding education to the curriculum can cause issues for students who will possibly have to add to their four-year plan if they add this as an additional non-credit class; a better solution to this problem would be to combine sexual assault awareness with the first year seminar class. For the second half of the semester, students could learn about sexual assault, how to prevent it and how to be safe on campus. Since everyone is already required to take a first year seminar class, it would make sense to just add the sexual violence education to that class so students don't have to worry about adding another class to their college experiences.
Issues and concerns with adding sexual assault awareness to an institutions curriculum:
Having to be educated on sexual assualt could cause men to take offense to the fact that they are the only ones being educated. The college or university could be sued because of discrimination.
Possible issues and critiques with educating men:
Although men are more likely to be the perpetrator in a sexual assault situation, it is possible that a woman could be too. Both men and women should be educated when it comes to controlling themselves, their actions and the signals they send people while out in public. They should both be taught these things but men should focus on learning how to respect females, accept when a woman says no and control themselves. Also, women should focus on learning self-defense if something does happen and how to be conscious of their actions and the signals they're giving off while in public.
Zero Tolerance can be a help and a hindrance:
Colleges should make sure that there is a presentation at freshman orientation stating that there is zero tolerance for sexual assault and at the first offense the student will be expelled from the college or university and they will receive no reimbursement on the tuition and/or room and board. By doing this, students will know from the very beginning that if they commit the crime of sexual assault on the college campus, there will be absolutely no tolerance and there will be no warning after their first offense.
Unless the rule is not clearly stated from the second the student enrolls in the school, there is no issue with this rule.
Unless the rule is not clearly stated from the second the student enrolls in the school, there is no issue with this rule.
Colleges should make sure that there is a presentation at freshman orientation stating that there is zero tolerance for sexual assault and at the first offense the student will be expelled from the college or university and they will receive no reimbursement on the tuition and/or room and board. By doing this, students will know from the very beginning that if they commit the crime of sexual assault on the college campus, there will be absolutely no tolerance and there will be no warning after their first offense.
Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault:
A Common Problem
among College Students*
Typically, if either the victim or the perpetrator
is drinking alcohol, then both are. For example, in Abbey et al. (1998), 47% of the sexual assaults
reported by college men involved alcohol consumption. In 81% of the alcohol-related sexual assaults, both the victim and the perpetrator had consumed alcohol.
Abbey, A., & Ph. (2002).
The Top Three Priorities for Colleges and Universities as they Institute Policy Changes should be:
Adding sexual violence education to curriculum
Committing to a cultural change across campus
Educating men
Presentation created by: Cherylan Zarpaylic
The Priorities of Colleges and Institutions should incorporate the following into
all aspects of it's Reform. While implementing its new policies on sexual assault
the one should not lose focus on improving

• efficiency of cooperation between off-campus criminal investigations,
and on-campus judicial reviews
• increasing the protection and provide justice for the victims,
while maintaining Due Process for the suspect; and
• holding colleges and universities more accountable

Arguments in Support of College Sexual Assault Reform:

Serious sexual assault reform on college campuses has been relatively rare until the recent spike in sexual assaults. Now, there are numerous pieces of legislation that are aiming to improve standards and processes used by college campuses to respond to the rising number of sexual assaults. However, a handful of campuses have already made certain changes to their sexual assault policies and not many of them have had the right priorities, such as the ones listed above. For example, certain campuses have adopted policies that focus on having all students learn more about sexual assault and participate in activates that promote awareness, such as writing poetry. Students have not responded well to this, however, arguing that most students do NOT commit sexual crimes and should not be forced to take part in activities that do not apply to them. They consider it time wasted that could be spent in increasing protection for the victims and improving investigation techniques, listing the same priorities as we have. This sentiment is shared by both faculty and students, such as at Columbia University, where grad students protested the implementation of new sexual assault policies that focused too heavily on educating the general public and not focusing on the actual problem; or at the University of Pennsylvania, where faculty protested a number of new polices, such as the installation of a new sexual assault investigative officer, which they believed eliminated Due Process for both the school and the suspects. They commended the attempt at change, but, like the students, believed the focus was in the wrong areas. While it may seem to be contradictory for a school to increase protection for the victim while respecting the rights of the accused, but as the situation with Rolling Stone magazine and its unclear and unreliable, if not completely false, report of a sexual assault by a fraternity at the University of Virginia. What this shows is that not every story of sexual assault can be completely taken at its word and that there needs to be a more efficient investigative process between the police and the campus. Otherwise, lives could be ruined before all the facts are clearly presented and consequences that should not have happened occur.
While we primarily answered specific questions, this was a combined group effort wherein, as our research found answers to each others questions, we shared the information to help form our presentation presentation together.

Michael P. - Questions 1&2; research found on slides 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, and 33

Cherylan Zarpaylic - Questions 3&4; research found on slides 1,11,13,14,14 video,16,17,18,19,20, 20 video, 27 video, 36,37,40,41, 42, and the introduction voice over

Paul G. - Question 5; research found on slides 10,12,15,16,23,24,31,32

Erica D. - Questions 6&7; research found on slides 4,21,22,25,26,28,29,30,31, 33,34,35,37, 38, and 39
Full transcript