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Acute Kidney Failure
Transcript of Acute Kidney Failure
What is it?
Acute renal failure is an Abrupt loss of kidney function and GFR that occurs over a period hours or days
Impaired cardiac efficiency
Prolonged renal ischemia
Urinary tract obstruction
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Initiation or onset
Changes in Urine Output
Decresed sodium urine levels
Urinary casts and other cellular Debris
Patients with oliguria and anuria are at high risk for
Elevated serum Creatinine is the most sensitive clinical indicator of renal failure.
Acute Vs chronic
Acute renal failure is a predisposing factor of Chronic Renal Failure
In acute renal failure there is a sudden increase in BUN and creatinine levels. These levels will be compared to previous lab results to rule out chronic renal disease
GFR is used as a diagnostic factor for Chronic renal failure
Healthy People 2020
15.1% of people in the US were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease
Reduce the number of cases of kidney disease to
The number of people receiving medical evaluation is increasing.
Americans have earlier diagnoses and treatment of renal disease.
There are reduced numbers of people with End Stage Renal Failure.
Prevention- monitor patients at risk for renal failure
dehydration (older adults)
infection-- skin breakdown (can result from edema)
The treatment depends on the underlying cause and the clinical manifestations
Treat electrolyte imbalances and continue to monitor for hypervolemia
Kayexalate for hyperkalemia
IV dextrose, insulin, calcium replacement to shift K+ into the cells
Sodium Bicarbonate therapy if concentration is below 15 mmol/L- to treat acidosis
Phosphate binding agents such as calcium binding agents—to decrease the absorption of phosphate from the intestinal track.
Chronic glomerulonephritis, or chronic pyelonephritis
Obstruction of urinary tract
Vascular and autoimmune diseases
Infection, medication, toxic
Environmental and occupational agents
African American, Hispanics, Native Americans
Acute renal disease has a mortality rate of
40 to 60%
Phases of Renal Failure
Chronic Kidney Disease | Healthy People 2020. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/chronic-kidney-disease
Gedeon, S. (2013). Comprehensive Case Study: Acute Kidney Injury. MEDSURG Nursing, 22(6), 400-402
Pellico, L. H. (2013). Nursing managment: patients with renal disorders. In Focus on adult health: Medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.