Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Aquatic Biomes

No description
by

Marc Printz

on 13 December 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Aquatic Biomes

Intertidal Zone This zone is located where the land and the ocean meet - including sandy shores, rocky shores and wetlands. It is defined by the region between the tidal lines. On sandy shorelines this zone is only habitable to a small diversity in life since there is constant change between being submersed, exposed and being pummeled by the waves. Sandy shorelines go from being very warm (when submersed by a small amount of water in low tide) to very cold (when exposed and subject to the winds). Species include some coral and sea urchins. However on rocky shorelines much more life is capable of taking hold. These regions are defined vertically with small amounts of algae at the top- which are exposed more often than not. Algae and small animals (such as crabs) are found in more abundance in the middle- which are submerged during high tide. Larger plant organisms, such as seaweed, and larger organisms, such as medium sized fish, can be found at the bottom- which is submerged more often than not. Pelagic Zone This zone includes all open ocean and is also called the photic zone. This is an area in which light can still penetrate the water and promote photosynthesis plant life. This area is usually mildly cold however temperatures greatly vary from time to time due to cold and warm currents. Vegetation includes surface seaweed. Consumer life includes fish, whales and plankton. Benthic Zone This zone is found just below the Pelagic zone and is where the ocean begins to turn into the aphotic zone - sunlight is no longer abundant enough to promote photosynthesis in plants. The deeper you go the colder the water gets due to there being no sun light to heat up the water. Also pressures steadily increase. The ocean floor in this region is mainly sand, silt and decaying organisms. This region does not however extend to the very deepest parts of the ocean. Organismic life includes large variates of bacteria, fish and fungi that take advantage of the decaying organisms that fall from the photic pelagic zone. There are no actual plants grow in this area, only consumers and decomposers. Life tends to stay very close to the sea floor in this area, more often than not they are attached to it and cannot move. It is a high- nutrient rich zone. Abyssal Zone This zone is located just under the Benthic Zone at the very bottom of the deepest parts of the ocean. In this area there is absolutely no sunlight, is very cold (only about 37 degrees Fahrenheit) and is under extreme pressure due to being around 6 miles below the surface. This area is oxygen rich but nutrient poor making the only vegetation to be found at thermal vents near ocean ridges. This vegetation is all chemosynthetic and mainly consists of only bacteria. Consumer organismic life includes fish and some invertebrates. Some of such organisms also feed off of dead organism matter that falls from the above zones. Coral Reefs Coral reefs are found in areas that have warm, shallow water. These waters are also nutrient poor. Coral obtains energy from the sun and by trapping surrounding plankton. They take a long time to devolve into coral reefs (found along the coasts of islands and continents) and are very sensitive to their environment. Coral reefs harbor large diversities in life including large amounts of fish, octopus, etc. The three different types of reefs that exist are barrier reefs ( which create shallow in shore lagoons), atolls and fringing reefs. Estuaries This an area where rivers mix large amounts of fresh water with the salt water of the ocean. These areas result in large diversities of unique life that harbor much vegetation and consumer life. Vegetation life can include some trees, grasses and algae. Consumer life may include birds and oysters. East Pacific Rise Mid- Atlantic Ridge Juan de Fuca Ridge Amazon River Estuary Long Island Sound Estuary This estuary is located bordering New York and Connecticut in New England int he Atlantic ocean. It extends about 110 miles long and is around 21 miles at its widest point. About 18,000 years ago it was just one giant glacier. Many different rivers flow into it providing the fresh water. The most notable ones including the Housatonic, Thames and Connecticut rivers. These rivers and many others provide this estuary with a water shed - the area from which all its water comes from) that encompasses parts of New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Hampshire Quebec (Canada) and all of Connecticut. This includes the 8 million people who live there. It is also an hour away or less by car from 20 million people. However the abnormal part of this estuary is that is has two connections to the ocean where as most only have one. Towards the western end the East River flows from the ocean into the Long Island Sound. Towards the eastern end it flows into the Atlantic ocean in the area called “The Race.” It produces more money than the Florida Reef at 5 billion dollars ( from attractions and activities such as things such as fishing, swimming and beaches).

Life in the Sound is found in its waters, as well as along the coasts on beaches, in tidal marshes and on dunes. Plants that live in the marshes include the salt water cordgrass, glasswort and sea lavender. Marine Animal life includes the black seabass, the lady crab and the Atlantic moon snail. Humans have drastically effected this region through pollution of its waters, drastically raising nitrogen levels (which leads to poor oxygenation) and usage of land around it and apart of its water shed. Fishing is also a very large industry producing 95 percent of the nations oysters. Humber Estuary Red Sea Coral Reef The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef This near 500 year old reef - other known as the Great Mayan reef - is located in the Caribbean ocean along Central America. It extends approximately 700 miles from the northern end of the Yucatan peninsula down through the Honduran Bay Islands. This makes it the largest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in the world. This includes the south eastern coast of Mexico, and the eastern coasts of Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Interestingly enough this reef was the main reason for many pre- Colombian civilizations that existed in this area (such as the Mayans). It provided them with a good source of food and calm waters. Many early trade routes led to it and were based upon it. Later on after the arrival of Columbus (and thus the Spanish) it became an area inhabited by many pirates, their safe haven. This barrier is also not really one large continuous reef, but a collection of hundreds of smaller "shallow patch reefs, drop- offs and gardens".
Life in this area is very abundant including huge numbers of sharks, around six species of sea turtles, 60 species of hard coral and nearly 500 species of fish. More specifically it is the habitat for the whale shark, the leather back sea turtle and tuna. It has, by many world wide organizations, been classified as unique and important worldwide. Acting as barrier (as the name barrier reef suggests) it allows large large mangroves to exist behind on the shoreline. Human interactions include large amounts of tourism, over 100 dive sites and large amounts of fishing. These continuous actions and pollution of its waters have harmed the highly sensitive reef system. Organizations such as the Mesoamerican Reef Alliance are trying to educate the general people and instate better policies towards fishing, tourism and farming. Farming actually leads to large amounts of dirt to enter the clear waters which harms coral communities. Florida Reef This 5,000 to 7,000 year old reef extends from Stuart in Martin County on the Atlantic coast to Dry Tortugas in the Gurlf of Mexico. It is the third largest coral reef in the world at approximately 358 miles long. Two thirds of it is apart of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. This protected marine area surround the Florida Keys. Reefs that are north of this area are protected by several agencies including the Coral Reef Conservation Program and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Corals that exist here grow on average 1/4 to 1/2 inches a year. However at the same time they are consistently being pushed further into sea bed by animals and covered up by sand from storms. This reefs is similar to a great barrier reef but is not quite lacking the lagoons and living in deeper waters. Thus it is called a bank reef.
Around 45 species of hard corals and 37 species of soft corals are found in the Florida Reef. The most commonly found species of coral include stage horn, brain, elk horn and star corals. However recently in 2006 both stag horn and elk horn coral species were listed as endangered. This is due to rising ocean acidity, corals diseases and increased numbers of hurricanes. In order to protect them and bring them back coral nurseries were instated by marine biologists in which new colonies of these species are grown and then outsourced to other areas. Other organisms include over 70 species of sponges, the snow crab and the loggerhead. This is a very popular destination for tourism supporting a near 36,000 jobs and generating nearly 3.4 billion dollars. Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean This ocean is located from the antarctic coast north to the Antarctic Treaty Limit at 60 degrees south. It covers an area of about 7,848,000 sq miles which is around twice the size of the United States. Water temperature range from 50 to 28.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Weather here is harsh staying around 30 degrees Fahrenheit with frequent storms and the fastest winds recorded on earth. During the winter it freezes over to about 65 degrees south latitude at the Pacific Ocean and 55 degrees at the Atlantic Ocean, increasing antarctic ice more than seven fold in area. The deepest point is around -23,737 feet at the South Sandwich Trench.
Vegetation only really includes phytoplankton and some seaweed. Endangered animals include the patagonian toothfish, the fur seal and some sea birds. Human activities include damaging of the ozone layer above Antarctica which has inhibited phytoplankton photosynthesis by nearly 15 percent and damaged organismic DNA. Also illegal fishing occurs. Man Groves of the Gulf of Mexico Man Groves of South Africa Man Groves of South America Marine Habitats
By: Marc Printz These man grooves extend from the southern tip of Florida to Texas. A man groves (man grove swaps) are both coastal wetlands found in the intertidal zone and types of trees. Man groves are generally found near estuaries and harbor great deals of life due to being nutrient rich. This is due to new fresh water constantly being available due to rivers and new salt water due to the tides.

Only three types of man grove trees live here: the red, the black and the white mangrove which are mainly defined by their root systems. They create a very large, lush area in which many organisms live. The Snowy Egret was hunted nearly to extinction for its feathers in the early 20th century. Other animals include crocodiles, bacteria and many types of filter feeders. Human impacts to this area include the destruction of these man groves to provide more room for commercial use. However this has resulted in storms being much more powerful when they hit land. These man groves extend from the northern coast of South America to the southeastern coat of Venezuela. They also extend down the western side as well. The man groves of this area vary greatly in species due differing levels salinity and rain fall. Many rivers and streams bring much fresh water to these areas. Though rain fall can range from about 960mm to 3058mm. However one things remains the same, that most of these man groves are being protected even where they cross national boundaries.
Some species of man groves include the red and white man grove which extend from around the upper eastern regions to the far north western regions of South America. Animal life includes the boat- billed heron, the howler monkey and the ocelot. There are more than 50 species of mammals, many species of birds and reptiles. The main threat due to human causes is destruction for agricultural (in order to grow crops such as rice and natural resources (such as wood, medicinal plants and fruit. Also tourism puts strain on food supplies so animals are be hunted and plant fruit are taken. These man groves are divided into three coastal areas: the western Atlantic, the central Atlantic and the eastern Indian Ocean. Western Atlantic man groves extend from Mauritania to Angola (containing about half of the total area of man groves of Africa. Eastern man groves reach from about Somalia to South Africa (accounting for approximately 37 percent of total area).
Man groves of western and central Atlantic consist of only six main species, however ten main species exist in the man groves of the eastern Indian Ocean. This smaller range in diversity - in comparison to the man groves of South America - are largely due to temperatures and climates being relatively the same all across the coast. Consumer organisms include manatees, antelopes and oysters. Human threats include harvesting for wood, destruction for salt mining and pollution (from industries and cars). This ocean is located between North American, Central American, South American, Europe, Africa and the Southern Ocean. It has a total area of 31, 530,00 square miles - which is about 6.5 times the size of the United States - making it the second largest after the Pacific Ocean. Weather includes hurricanes which may occur from August until December and fog which occurs from May until September. The deepest point is at about -28,231 feet in the Puerto Rico Trench.

Vegetation includes many types of kelp, phytoplankton and sea grass. Many species of animals in the Atlantic are endangered such as manatees, sea turtles and seals. Human activities such as over fishing, oil pollution and sewage pollution have effected all communities of life living in the ocean devastating some and eliminating others. Other activities include exploitation of sand and natural gas. This ocean is located between North America, South America, Central America, Asia, Australia, and the Southern Ocean. It has an area about 15 times the size of the United States, or 63.8 million square miles, or larger than all landmass on earth combined. Weather includes hurricanes from June to October for the western hemisphere and May to December for Asia. During the summer months is the rainy season while during the winter is the dry season. The deepest point is at about -35,840 feet in the Mariana Trench making it the lowest place on earth.
Vegetation that lives in the Pacific Ocean include sargassum, oar weed and sea cabbage. Endangered animals include the dugong, the sea otter and the sea lion. Human activities include over fishing (about 60 percent of the marine fish caught for market come from the Pacific Ocean), oil drilling, and garbage pollution. Also transportation across the Pacific Ocean has largely effected ocean life. This rise/ ridge is where the Pacific and Cocos plates meet. It features on of the largest spreading rates in the world, and average of 4.5 inches. On average this ridge is 8,366 feet deep making it a relatively shallow ridge, thus it is called a rise.
Hydrothermal vents fuel much life including tubeworms, octopus and crabs. However because this area is volcanically active volcanic eruptions are common. Lava coats the previous sea floor killing past life and leaving rise to new species each time. Human activities include pollution of the oceans and marine biologists having several study sites along here. This ridge extends from Antarctica up to the North pole along the border line between the North American and Eurasian plates (between the western hemisphere and Europe/ Africa. This ridge is a mountainous ridge rising about 1.28 miles above the sea bed. It is also about 1000 miles wide. For the most part it remains as an underwater mountain range. However in some spots it does break the surface being islands. It also has a pretty slow spreading rate at about one inch per year.
This ridge exhibits hydrothermal fields that tend to be larger than those featured at other ridges which is able to host more life. Animal species include the deep sea angler fish, some squid and the yeti crab. This ridge is located along where the Juan de Fuca plate and the Pacific plate meet. This ridge is an underwater volcanic mountain range extending for about 300 miles along the coast of Washington and Oregon. It harbors much life by supporting many hydrothermal vents. These vents pour out lava heated water which contains many minerals such as sulfur. When the water comes in contact with the frigid water of the ocean, the chemicals condense and fall down around the vent in a small ring area. Over time this rings builds up to form chimneys that stretch tens of feet tall or more.

The Juan de Fuca ridge contains organisms such as the red and white tube worm, crabs and chemosynthesis bacteria. Human activity includes us creating submarines that are able to withstand the pressures and traveling down there to investigate this hostile environment. This coral reef exists around the north edge of the Red Sea (mainly Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan) and existing islands in it, extending for around 1,240 miles. They have existed for around 5,000 years. Most areas of the the coral reef grow right from the shoreline, other parts exist further out. These further out reefs in fact create a shallow in shore lagoon behind them where mangroves and meadows exist on shore. This coral reef is unique because at some locations reefs exist off shore at great depths and clump together in odd formations. They are also very resistant to heat, turbidity and high salt levels that would other wise have killed a great percentage of them.
This coral reef harbors large amounts of life being comprised of around 300 species of hard coral. Like the name suggests hard coral are coral species that are hard and feel as if they are a rock. Most of these species are apart of the families Acropora or Porites. Also existing in these very clear waters are about 1, 200 species of fish. About ten percent, or 120 of these species are only found here. Some animals include the blue spotted stingray, the carpet flathead fish and the polyclad flatworm. This is the largest estuary in the world churning out about 46 million gallons per second into the Atlantic Ocean. This makes the water in this region have pretty low salinity. It travels inland for about 190 miles near the city of Macapà in Brazil ranging from a width of 15 to 190 miles wide. This estuary contains many forested islands that are close to sea level. Tidal waves exist reaching heights of around 10 feet and last for several miles. It is possible to surf them however it is risky as there are dangerous marine animals that live in these water - such as fish, snakes and crocodiles.
Vegetation life in this estuary includes the water fern, water lettuce and the Giant Water Lily. The Giant Water Lily is the largest lily species known with pads that are six feet across. Animal life includes the Jacana bird, monitor lizards and caimans. This area attracts good amounts of tourism. Other activities include fishing and - as stated earlier - some surfing. This estuary is located about half way up the United kingdom in the North Sea basin off the coast of Great Britain. It is the second largest coastal plain of the UK draining about 20 percent of its total land mass ( 9449 miles squared). The Aire, Don and Trent rivers include some of the rivers that supply this estuary with all of its water. Its average depth of 21 feet while it ranges from around 14 to 46 feet wide. Because it is located in the North Sea basin it has a relatively high tidal range from 19 to 24 feet high which results in around half of the total bed area being exposed. This doubled with the fact that it carries so much sediment in its waters - from the clay cliffs along the Holderness coast which gives it a muddy appearance (called turbity) - fuels very important habitats such as salt marshes, sandflats, mudflats and lagoons. Because it is such an important home to birds over the winter it has been the target for many conservation laws and programs.

This estuary is home to a very large population of birds including nine species that are internationally important. Animals species that inhabit this estuary are the starlet sea anemone (rare/ endangered), the tentacled lagoon worm (rare/ endangered) and the grey seal ( which is very rare). This estuary along with several other locations in the UK harbor 40 percent of world wide populations of these seals. One other odd species is the lamprey which has no lower jaw. Plant life includes samphire and hundreds of other species depending on which zone (mudflats, salt marshes, etc.). Samphire is harvested from salt marches by humans for eating in this area which affects bird populations that also eat it. All along the Humber Estuary are many oil, chemical and power complexes. It also the location of the UK's largest port which provides about 14 percent of all its international trade. This greatly influences wild life. Tourism is pretty popular. Bibliography "The Aquatic Biome." The Aquatic Biome. UCMP Teachers, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/aquatic.html>.

"The Aquatic Biome." The Aquatic Biome. University of California Museum of Paleontology, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/aquatic.php>.

"Marine Habitats." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_habitats>.

"Marine Biomes." Biomes of the World. The Wild Classroom, 2003. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/MARINE.html>.

"Mangrove Swamps." Home. United States Enviromental Protection Agency, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/mangrove.cfm>.

"Benthic Zone." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benthic_zone>.

World Wildlife Fund (Lead Author);Mark McGinley (Topic Editor) "Guianan mangroves". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth August 23, 2008; Last revised Date August 23, 2008; Retrieved November 19, 2012 <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Guianan_mangroves>

"WRM Bulletin | 133." WRM Bulletin 133. N.p., Aug. 2008. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://wrmbulletin.wordpress.com/2008/08/25/current-status-and-conservation-of-mangroves-in-africa-an-overview/>.

"Atlantic Ocean: Map, Marine Life, Plants, Temperature, Coast, Depth, Area." Atlantic Ocean: Map, Marine Life, Plants, Temperature, Coast, Depth, Area. All The Sea, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.allthesea.com/Atlantic-Ocean.html>.

"Pacific Ocean." : Location, Area, Geographic Coordinates, Climate, Coastline. All The Sea, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.allthesea.com/Pacific-Ocean.html>.

"Southern Ocean." : Geographic Coordinates, Area, Climate, Coastline, Geography. All The Sea, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.allthesea.com/Southern-Ocean.html>.

Student Experiments At Sea. "Study Site at the East Pacific Rise." SEAS Reference Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ridge2000.org/seas/for_students/reference/study_site_epr.html>.

"Mid-Atlantic Ridge". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380800/Mid-Atlantic-Ridge>.
http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/504/

Places In The Sea. "Juan De Fuca Ridge." Juan De Fuca Ridge. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.marine-conservation.org/media/shining_sea/place_epacific_juandefuca.htm>.

Scuba Travel. "Red Sea Fish Photo Guide: Marine Life Pictures and Identification." Red Sea Fish Photo Guide: Marine Life Pictures and Identification. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.scubatravel.co.uk/redsea/redsealife.html>.

Alevizon PH. D, William. "Red Sea Coral Reefs." : Types, Characteristics, Biodiversity. Coral Reef Info, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.coral-reef-info.com/red-sea-coral-reefs.html>.

"Mesoamerican Barrier Reef." Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. About Playa Del Carmen, 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.aboutplayadelcarmen.com/playadelcarmen/mesoamerican-barrier-reef.asp>.

"Mesoamerican Reef." Wildlife Conservation, Endangered Species Conservation. World Wildlife Fund, 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://worldwildlife.org/places/mesoamerican-reef>.

"Mesoamerican Reef Alliance (MAR)." ICRAN. International Coral Reef Action Network, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.icran.org/action-mar.html>.

John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park. "Diving." Diving. Coral Reef Park Company, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pennekamppark.com/reefinfo.html>.

"Florida's Coral Reefs." Florida's Coral Reefs. Florida Department of Enviromental Protection, 19 July 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/habitats/coral/>.

"NOAA CoRIS - Regional Portal - Florida." Coral Ecosystem Publications RSS. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 16 Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://coris.noaa.gov/portals/florida.html>.

The Encyclopedia of Earth. "Coral Reefs in Florida." Coral Reefs in Florida. Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment, 7 Jan. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Coral_reefs_in_Florida>.

The Nostalgic Kid. "Estuaries." : Amazon Estuary #2: General Info, Vertebrates, and Aquatic Plants. Blogger, 17 Dec. 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://googleearthestuaries.blogspot.com/2010/12/amazon-estuary-2-general-info-and.html>.

Oceana. "Oceana | Protecting the World's Oceans." Amazon Estuary. N.p., 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://oceana.org/en/explore/marine-places/amazon-estuary>.

"Long Island Sound Watershed." Long Island Sound Watershed. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://green-ct.org/LONGIS~1.HTM>.

"Long Island Sound (NEP Profile)." Home. United States Enviromental Protection Agency, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/nep/programs_lis.cfm>.

"Long Island Sound." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_Sound>.

"Key Features." Humber Management Scheme. Humber Estuary European Marine Site, 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.humberems.co.uk/humber/features.php>.

"The Humber." Humber Management Scheme. Humber Estuary European Marine Site, 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.humberems.co.uk/humber/>. Bibilography Pictures

Graduate School of Oceanography. "Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems (ChEss)." A Decade of Discovery. University of Rhode Island, 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.coml.org/projects/biography-deep-water-chemosynthetic-ecosystems-chess>.

Graduate School of Oceanography. "Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems (ChEss)." A Decade of Discovery. University of Rhode Island, 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.coml.org/projects/biography-deep-water-chemosynthetic-ecosystems-chess>.

Wikipedia. "File:Intertide Zonation at Kalaloch.jpg." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 5 Apr. 2006. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Intertide_zonation_at_Kalaloch.jpg>.

"Mangrove Swamps." Home. United States Enviromental Protection Agency, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/mangrove.cfm>.

"First Line of Defense: Mangroves." News Watch. National Geographic, 3 May 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2010/05/03/first_line_of_defense_mangrove/>.

Laere, Mark Van. "Wallpaper Australia Collection II: "Mangroves"" HersenSpinsels.nl. HersenSpinsels, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hersenspinsels.nl/hersenspinsels/wallpaper.asp?ImageNumber=293>.

"Atlantic Ocean Map - Map of the Atlantic Ocean by Worldatlas.com." Atlantic Ocean Map - Map of the Atlantic Ocean by Worldatlas.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/oceans/atlanticocean.htm>.

Wikipedia. "File:Pacific Ocean - En.png." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pacific_Ocean_-_en.png>.

"HRW WORLD ATLAS - Southern Ocean." HRW WORLD ATLAS - Southern Ocean. N.p., 2006. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://go.hrw.com/atlas/norm_htm/southocean.htm>.

"Abyssal Plain." Abyssal Plain. Blogger, 28 Sept. 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.bgsusports.com/maybh/Abyssal-Plain>.

"Delcastleblocks56group2 - Part 3." Delcastleblocks56group2 - Part 3. Wikimedia, 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://delcastleblocks56group2.wikispaces.com/Part 3?responseToken=84efb1de4aa49ef2f8c34f3e26db6446>.

"Yahoo! Search - Images." Yahoo! Search - Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKkoAKtQtwMAGhSJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBxYW4yY2ljBHNlYwNkZC1pbWctc3VtLTEEc2xrA2hxaW1n?back=http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?p=coral+reef&fr=mcafee&fr2=piv-web&ri=6&tab=organic>.

"UnderwaterTimes.com | Human-caused Pollution Damaging Prized Central American Reefs." UnderwaterTimes.com | Human-caused Pollution Damaging Prized Central American Reefs. N.p., 13 Dec. 2006. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.underwatertimes.com/news.php?article_id=69354801710>.

Stylishandtrendy. N.p., 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://cdn1.stylishandtrendy.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Florida-Reef-Florida.jpg>.

Barros, Demetrio. "Coral Red Sea." - Demetrio Barros. Photo Galaxy, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.photogalaxy.com/photo/demetrio/1/>.

Savingwater. Savingwater.co, 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.savingwater.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Estuary.jpg>.

Sunny, Hayden A. "BiomesFifth10 - Estuary Home." BiomesFifth10 - Estuary Home. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://biomesfifth10.wikispaces.com/Estuary Home?responseToken=060d41bcd28465ad9104fc5cfe11552fc>.

"Both Wild and Captive Settings « Fish Guy Photos." Fish Guy Photos RSS. N.p., 25 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishguyphotos.com/category/underwater-photography>.
Full transcript