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Chapter 10

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Cassie Stoick

on 17 November 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 10

Action Potentials
nerve impulse
occur on axons
refractory period
absolute - time when threshold stimulus does not start another action potential
relative – time when stronger threshold stimulus can start another action potential
if stimulus becomes stronger you can make it so that the signal sends quicker than it usually would
Clinical Application
Multiple Sclerosis
blurred vision
numb legs or arms
can lead to paralysis
myelin destroyed in various parts of CNS
hard scars (scleroses) form
nerve impulses blocked
muscles do not receive innervation
may be related to a virus
no cure
bone marrow transplant
interferon (anti-viral drug)
Divisions of the
Nervous System
Central Nervous System
spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (everything outside of brain and spinal cord)
peripheral nerves
cranial nerves
spinal nerves
Divisions of Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Division
picks up sensory information and delivers it to the CNS
Motor Division
carries information to muscles and glands
Divisions of the Motor Division
Somatic – carries information to the skeletal muscle (walking across the classroom)
Autonomic (*automatic*) – carries information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
messages to brain about how much food is in small intestine, blood pressure, ect.
Functions of Nervous System
Sensory Function (input)
sensory receptors gather information
information is carried to the CNS
Integrative Function
sensory information used to create
Motor Function (output)
decisions are acted upon
impulses are carried to effectors
Myelination of Axons
White Matter
contain myelinated axons

Gray Matter
contains unmyelinated structures
cell bodies, dendrites
brain is mostly made of gray matter
Classification of Neurons
Interneurons (*are in the brain*)
link neurons
in CNS
Motor Neurons
carry impulses away from CNS
carry impulses to effectors
Sensory Neurons
carry impulse to CNS
most are unipolar
some are bipolar
Resting Membrane Potential
inside is negative relative to the outside
outside more positive than inside
polarized membrane (ready to fire)
due to the distribution of ions
Na+/K+ pump
diffusion not all ions go through
active transport all ions go through
Potential Changes
at rest membrane is polarized
sodium channels open and membrane depolarizes
potassium leaves cytoplasm and membrane repolarizes
threshold stimulus reached
Synaptic Transmission
Neurotransmitters are released when impulse reaches synaptic knob
Impulse Processing
Neuronal Pools
groups of interneurons that make synaptic connections with each other
interneurons work together to perform a common function
each pool receives input from other neurons
each pool generates output to other neurons
one neuron can start interneurons
neuron receives input from several neurons
incoming impulses represent information from different types of sensory receptors
allows nervous system to collect, process, and respond to information
makes it possible for a neuron to sum impulses from different sources
brain only knows when you are cold if both 1 & 2 tell 3 they are cold; then 3 tells the brain
one neuron sends impulses to several neurons
can amplify an impulse
impulse from a single neuron in CNS may be amplified to activate enough motor units needed for muscle contraction
4 sends pain message to brain, but message first gets amplified by 5 & 6
Chapter 10
Nervous System I

Cell Types of Neural Tissue
neurons (sends electrical signal *workhorse*)
neuroglial cells (helps out neuron)
Divisions Nervous System
Neuron Structure
Classification of Neurons
two processes
eyes, ears, nose
one process
dendrite goes into the same place as the axon comes out
many processes
most neurons of CNS
more than one dendrite
Types of Neuroglial Cells
(help out neurons)

Schwann Cells
peripheral nervous system
myelinating cell
makes neuron fat
myelinating cell
makes neuron fat by myelinating it
scar tissue

mop up excess ions
, etc
induce synapse formation
connect neurons to blood vessels
phagocytic cell (crawl around neuron and eat things that are not supposed to be there)
line central canal of spinal cord
line ventricles of brain
keep spinal fluid circulating
have cilia
Local Potential Changes
occur on membranes of dendrites and cell bodies
caused by various stimuli
temperature change
mechanical forces (pressure on butt when sitting, listening to someone's voice)
polarized = cell ready to send a signal
if membrane potential becomes more negative, it has hyperpolarized (hasn't sent a signal in so long so it wants to *eyes seeing light in the morning*)
if membrane potential becomes more positive, it has depolarized
summation can lead to threshold stimulus that starts an action potential
Action Potentials
The Synapse
*Space b/w nerve and what it is talking to*

Nerve impulses pass from neuron to neuron at synapses
Mucles, Nerves, AND Bones need calcium
*need to know*
*amplifies message*
*lessens message*
Full transcript