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Instructional Design & Technology : A Timeline
Transcript of Instructional Design & Technology : A Timeline
An Historical Timeline Bronne Dytoc, SPSU Architecture
IT 8000 - 2012 (Dr B Calandra) In 1904 St. Louis, Missouri hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Education was the main theme and the St. Louis public schools assembled an extensive educational exhibit. A total of 70,000 students eventually attended it under the sponsorship of the schools. 1905 - The School Museum A Traveling Exhibition - Bringing the World into the Classroom http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/time%20exposures/html/time_exposure_5.html Hoping to keep the spirit of the Exposition alive, the School Board was persuaded to set up an educational museum. The Educational Museum opened on April 11, 1905. It is commonly recognized as the first audiovisual program established in conjunction with a school system in the United States. Magic Lantern Projectors, Stereroscopes, Kinetoscopic Stereopticons , used as early as late 1800s, found their way into educational use with the Keystone View Company's "Visual Education" package (1908). 1908 - Visual Education Movement (1914-1923) By 1910, catalogs of educational films were published. Schools in Rochester, NY were among the first to employ film media to supplement with instruction. A Stereopticon (Keystone View Co.) with Pictures Collection (left), "magic" lantern projector, and a showing of slides (upper row, right), and Edison's Vitascope (precursor to modern film projector)(below) World War I World War II The Great Depression Elvis Begins! Beatlemania! yours truly, was born. Led Zeppelin Madonna! Disco &
Fever The Berlin Wall (Gesundheit!) Sputnik! No More! USSR The Global Recession The introduction of sound as a media gave a new dimension to instructional media, spawning the age of audio-visual instruction. However, while it evolved, the rise of radio also came into prominence. 1920s-30s - Audio-Visual Instruction Movement The NEA (National Education Association) establishes the DVI (Department of Visual Instruction). (clockwise from top left) Radio room with controller, a panel discussion on NBC radio, a typical family scene at home with the radio, and FDR speaking to the nation in his "fireside chat" To better manage and sustain the different activites of the three organizations, the coalition of 1932 resulted in the merging of the NAVI and the VIAA into one single body, the DVI. DVI debates about the pros and cons of radio, sound vs silent films for instruction. The "talkies" eventually win. J F K Apollo 11
Vietnam China Radio's Educational Promise Fades (due to resistance, static, schedules) Textbook Samples during the Audiovisual Learning Movement Visualizing the Curriculum
Hoban, Hoban, Zisman. 1937 Focus on Learning :
Motion Pictures in the School
Hoban, American Council on Education
Committee on Motion Pictures. 1942 Visual Education
and the New Teacher
G Patrick Meredith. 1946 Visual Methods in Education
William L Sumner. 1957 Visual Aids in Education
Joseph Weber. 1930 Audiovisual Aids to Instruction
William Exton. 1947 The Principal and
NEA Dept. of Elementary School Principals. 1948 See What I Mean:
Design and Production of Individual Visual Aids
Marian Ray. 1953 Visual Aids in Fundamental Education: Some Personal Experiences
UNESCO. 1952 New Visual Education Techniques
Alfred Porter. 1951 Preparation and Use of
Haas, Packer. 1950 Audio-Visual Procedures
Lester B Sands. 1956 Euro! Rising Marilyn! Lennon
Killed Emergence and participation in World War II slowed AV instruction for schools, but accelerated production of instructional films for rapid training objectives. Varied categories of training films were made (basic, weapons, marksmanship, defense, interrogation, etc). Films to inform the masses and boost morale were also made (shorts). WW2 Audio-Visual Instruction Over 400 training films and 600 filmshorts were made for the war effort. Training films were shown an estimated 4M times 1943-1945. Gagne, Briggs, and Flanagan, among others, were instrumental in the content development of the films, using principles of instruction, learning and human performance. film shoot for flight training, film editing, and fim showing Necessity for competent performance of the training led to pre-screening and evaluation methods to optimize-match the learners' abilities to the training tasks at hand. Examples of WW2 training films http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=ww2+training+videos After the war, audiovisual material played a major role in training people for industry. Experts and practitioners continued research work in these areas, giving form to instruction as a system. Post-War : Instruction as a System One such area was communication. Theory-models of communication as a process were put forth by Shannon and Weaver (1949), Dale (1953), and Finn (1954), while Lumsdaine conducted research (1950s-60s) into AV mass communication and programmed learning, helping to pave the way for TV-education. Eric Dale's Cone of Experience (1946) Organizations such as the American Institutes for Research (ca 1946) are established to continue work and research into instructional topics. http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=1950s+instructional+tv Analysis, design, and evaluation procedures for instruction are developed (e.g. task analysis method by Miller). With FCC support for Ed-TV, more than 50 stations exist by 1960. Ford Foundation funds $170M on Ed-TV programs. Effect is mininal, promise unrealized (Carnegie Commission on Ed-TV). more fun stuff at: By the late 1960s, educational TV becomes less class-specific, and more cultural or general-interest in its programming. 1954 - B F Skinner, in The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, proposes that effective programmed instruction materials should have discrete steps, frequent overt responses, immediate feedback, and allow for learner self-pacing. Furthermore, his concept of operant conditioning seeks to show learning through learner behavior. Meanwhile... 1956 - Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues publish the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, where he writes of the three main domains of learning - cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. The authors of this work write of a hierarchy of various cognitive outcome types, matching objectives with learning outcomes. This taxonomy serves a major influential role in the formation of systematic design of instruction. Robert Mager popularized the use of learning objectives with “Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction” (1962). In the article, he describes how to write objectives including desired behavior, learning condition, and assessment. Russia's launching of Sputnik 1 catalyzes the US government to pass the National Defense Education Act (1958), funding millions for the improvement of science, math, and foreign language education. Bloom's Taxonomy Rose 1947 - The NEA's DVI is renamed DAVI (Dept. of Audio-Visual Instruction). Computer Aided Instruction started by pioneers in the 1950s through 1960s. There would be little impact on the education scene until the 1980s, with the emergence of the personal computer. The 60s - The Age of Roberts Robert Glaser was the first to use the term criterion-referenced measures (1962-1963). These could assess student entry-level behavior and determine the extent of learning behaviors an instructional program was designed to teach. The use of criterion-referenced tests for these two purposes is a central feature of instructional design procedures. Gagne's Domains of Learning (above), and Nine Events of Instruction (right) In response to ineffective instructional materials funded by the NDEA were not yielding positive results, Michael Scriven proposed formative evaluation methods of materials as they were being developed, and summative evaluation of finished materials (1967). Though described earlier by notables such as Cronbach, Lumsdaine, May, & Carpenter, it was Susan Markle that articulated a system of detailed steps for formative and summative evaluation (1968). Robert Gagne wrote the first edition of "The Conditions of Learning" (1965), describing five domains of learning outcomes, and each domain's set of conditions to promote learning. Gagné also described nine events of instruction, or teaching activities, for promoting the attainment of any type of learning outcome, detailing which instructional events were particularly crucial for which type of outcome, as well as settings where particular events could be excluded. Gagné indicated that within the intellectual skills domain exists a hierarchy or sequence of prerequisite learning steps. With it came task analyses for learning and instruction. This process remains a key feature in many instructional design models. Simultaneously... The many concepts and theories about objectives, criteria, and analyses linked into procedures and models for designing instruction systematically. Some early models were created by Glaser and Gagne in the early 60s, and Barson and Hamerus in the late 60s. Killed 9/11 Obama During the 1970s, the number of instructional design models greatly increased. Building upon previous works, many new models were created for systematic design of instruction (e.g., Dick & Carey, 1978; Gagné & Briggs, 1974; Gerlach & Ely, 1971; Kemp, 1971). 40+ such models were identified by decade's end. The 70s - The Rise of Systematic Approaches Models for Systematic Design of Instruction Dick & Carey (above), and Kemp (right) With more emerging technologies and developing work in design, communications, and media, new versions evolved to define the field of instructional design. DAVI grew in size and complexity, and with it, a more complicated relationship with the NEA, which has also seen a changing role. Ultimately, a separation marked the organization's decision to redefine itself, its mission, and its structure into the AECT, Association for Educational Communications and Technology (1971). Simultaneously... AECT's 1972 definition evolved to read "Educational technology is a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification, development, organization and utilization of a full range of learning resources and through the management of these processes." By 1977, continuous discussions have further evolved the definition to "a complex, integrated process, involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization, for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning." Newer advances in cassette technology (audio and video) inevitably spelled the end of previous formats that were more unwieldy, consequently making access to production more open and affordable, to the dismay of film production companies. By the mid 1970s, several branches of the United States military adopted an instructional design model to guide the development of training material, just as business and industry followed suit. Academically, instruction centers were established to promote instructional design methods and media use. The knowledge base of instructional design as a systems approach has grown in organization and depth to justify the creation of graduate programs in many universities, across several countries. Adopting an information-processing-based approach to the design of instruction, David Merrill developed Component Display Theory, specifying that instruction is more effective when it contains all necessary primary and secondary forms. The theory suggests that each objective and learner would benefit most from an appropriate combination of presentation forms. The quiet revolution of computers has evolved bulky room-sized machines into initial models of personal computers. Much noise was made of the PC in the field of instruction; however, for much of the decade, it's effect was minimal. Improvements in hardware, software, and access would change this game later. The 80s - New Media, Old Habits, and Redirections Though the military, business, and industry continued to make good use of instructional design, it was ironically not making a dent in schools. In fact, interest decreased; many ISD firms disbanded, and budgets grew smaller. The AECT itself also underwent major changes in direction and size. Simultaneously... Interest in applying cognitive psychology principles to instructional design. In addition, the relatively new performance technology movement was beginning to have an effect on instructional design practices. Cognitive Load Theory begins to make its presence known in the later 80s, (with empirical support for use in presentations) and shall have a stronger influence in instructional design in the 90s. The ADDIE model, developed by Florida State University, became quite popular, undergoing a few revisions to a more streamlined state. ADDIE model versions, 1975 onwards In a repeating pattern of heralding new technology, the humble PC makes the cover of TIME as Machine of the Year (1983). The improvement of technology in the form of personal computers, software interfaces, internet access, the world wide web (aka WWW), and CD technology, all combine to make a positive setting for instructional approaches. Attitudes shift from using the computer only for drills and practice. Presentation capabilities and interactive participation contribute to giving instruction and learning a new dimension. The 90s - WWW Power and Digital Media A 30% virtual representation of the
world's internet connections in 2005. Simultaneously... Business, industry, and the military continue to employ new technology for instructional design use. The mark of the decade is in the rise of access online, spurring on the distance learning and e-learning movement. Another factor that affected the field during the 1990s was the growing interest in constructivism, that gained increasing popularity throughout the decade. The instructional principles include (a) complex and realistic problems; (b) collaboration to solve those problems; (c) study from multiple perspectives; (d) ownership of the learning process; and (e) awareness of their own role in the knowledge construction process . From the 1982 audio CD, the 90s saw the rise of CD-ROMs, CD-RWs, and other data formats, opening up access and participation in the making and sharing of media content. HPT - Human Performance Technology, a systematic approach to improving individual and organizational performance (credited to work by, among others, Gilbert + Rummler), grows in prominence from late last decade onward. While websites and dotcoms burgeon in this everyone-is-a-www-pioneer age, the issue that begins to arise (and continues to plague us today) is the glut of information now being piled onto the web. For instruction and education's sake, the thing to balance is the quick access to information vs its veracity. Access online through channels such as email and early versions of voice communication (VoIP) cut the dimension of physical distance, making online-time a different global reality - a scene fraught with pros and cons... In tandem with the student-centered learning movement, the wave of technology in the digital information age combines with exponential growths in internet and WWW users and usage, making "connected"-ness the human condition. This also prompts shifts and adjustments to the nature of instruction, learning, and their design. Inevitably, the way people operate in society changes, and schools confront this new reality with varied degrees of readiness. The lecture must evolve or die. Instructional design evolves to integrate with the meteoric rise of the world wide web and the internet. Distance learning in synchronous or asynchronous formats develop continuously. With simultaneous feeds of information and a shared sense of choice and autonomy, the nature of learning is changed yet again. Onward to the 21st Century Simultaneously... The means to address online information glut comes in the field of knowledge management, which, as a recent trend, has affected the field of instructional design, and is likely to change and perhaps expand the types of tasks instructional designers are expected to undertake. Further evolutions in WWW and internet now make global connectedness an ubiquitous reality. Platforms such as Skype and Googletalk allow for instant communication; ease of uploads and downloads make constant updates possible through websites, blogs, video-podcasts, and global community projects such as Wikipedia. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter, portable devices such as smartphones and iPads, and the proliferation of apps enforce connectivity as the "new reality". Educators, such as John Boyer (aka The Plaid Avenger), fully endorse the thoughtful use of available online technology and media as a means to motivate and engage learners in nontraditional yet effective and fulfilling ways. Sophistication of available software increases to the point of making interactive simulations such as role-playing game scenarios possible as new avenues for the new mode of informal learning, foreseen to be the probable major learning pathway that integrates with the new and bold future reality of learning and living in an always-connected, always-available future world. SmartPhones - hybrid mini laptops Steve Jobs and the iPad. Being online will never be the same