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The Nervous System

Introductory nervous system presentation
by

Sean Truesdell

on 22 January 2016

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Transcript of The Nervous System

The Nervous System
Major Divisions:
Central Nervous System
(CNS)
Major Divisions:
Peripheral Nervous System:
PNS

Anatomy: Nerves connecting CNS to tissues of body.


Cranial Nerves

Spinal Nerves
n: The bodily system that in vertebrates, is made up of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to the effector organs.
Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Ner
vous System
Function: The central nervous system (CNS) controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the center of our thoughts, the interpreter of our external environment, and the origin of control over body movement
Nerves Consist of:


Afferent/Sensory Neurons:
Conducts signals from sensory organs to the CNS

Efferent/Motor Neurons: Transmits signals from CNS to effector organs

Interneurons: Transmit signals within CNS
Reflex Arc
Reflex Arc
Anatomy:
Brain
Spinal Cord
Nervous system impulses can travel at approximately 100 m/s
Peripheral
Nerve Structure
Cranial Nerves
I

O
h
VII

F
eel
II

O
h
VIII

V
ery
III

O
h
IX

G
ood
IV

T
o
X

V
elvet
V

T
ouch
XI

A
h
VI

A
nd
XII

H
eaven
Names of Cranial Nerves Mnemonic
I

S
ailors
VII

B
rother
II

S
ay
VIII

S
ays
III

M
arry
IX

B
ig
IV

M
oney
X

B
rains
V

B
ut
XI

M
atter
VI

M
y
XII

M
ore
Actions of Cranial Nerves Mnemonic
S=Sensory / M=Motor / B=Both
Fun Facts:

The weight of the human brain is about 3 lbs.

Your brain consists of about 100 billion neurons.

There are 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the brain.

At birth, your brain was almost the same size as an adult brain and contained most of the brain cells for your whole life.

Your brain uses 20% of the total oxygen in your body.

A world champion memorizer, Ben Pridmore memorized 96 historical events in 5 minutes and memorized a single, shuffled deck of cards in 26.28 seconds



Myelination is a term in anatomy that is defined as the process of forming a myelin sheath around a nerve to allow nerve impulses to move more quickly. An example of myelination is the formation of myelin around the axons of the body
Nevous System Dysfunction

Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause a gradual loss of function (degenerative).
Or they may occur suddenly and cause life-threatening problems (acute). Symptoms may be mild or severe. Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include:

Blood supply problems (vascular disorders).

Injuries (trauma), especially injuries to the head and spinal cord.

Problems that are present at birth (congenital).

Mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis.

Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead.

Peripheral neuropathies.

Infections. These may occur in the:
Brain (encephalitis or abscesses).
Membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).

Overuse of or withdrawal from prescription and nonprescription medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol.

A brain tumor.
Problems that cause a gradual
loss of function (degenerative).

Examples include:


Parkinson's disease

Happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain that control movement. The classic symptoms are shaking (tremor), stiff muscles (rigidity), and slow movement (bradykinesia). It may also cause problems with balance or walking, as well as confusion and memory loss.

Parkinson's gets worse over time. But usually this happens slowly, over many years
Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Often called MS, is a disease that gradually destroys the protective covering of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. This can cause problems with muscle control and strength, vision, balance, feeling, and thinking.

MS has no cure, but medicines may help lower the number of attacks and make them less severe.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), AKA Lou Gehrig's disease


A progressive wasting away of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal column that control the muscles that allow movement. Over a period of months or years, ALS causes increasing muscle weakness, inability to control movement, and problems with speaking, swallowing, and breathing.

The cause of ALS is unknown, and there is no cure. Treatment focuses on helping you keep your strength and independence for as long as possible. Treatment includes medicines to slow the disease and help with symptoms, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and supportive devices to help with daily tasks.
Alzheimer's disease:


Damages the brain and causes a steady loss of memory and of how well you can speak, think, and do your daily activities. It gets worse over time, but how quickly this happens varies.

There are medicines that may slow down the symptoms for a while and make the disease easier to live with.
Huntington's disease:

A rare inherited (genetic) disorder that causes parts of the brain to break down and lose some normal functions (degeneration). It is also called Huntington's chorea.

Symptoms of the disease usually develop after age 40 and include rapid, jerky movements (twitches in the face and jerks of the arms) that cannot be controlled (chorea) and the gradual loss of mental abilities (dementia), leading to personality changes, behavior problems, and memory loss.

There is no known cure for the disease. Treatment with medicines may help control the involuntary movements
Full transcript