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Transcript of LEARNING
(Curriculum for Excellence through outdoor learning, 2010: 5)
‘Outdoor learning experiences are often remembered for a lifetime. Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors'.
(Curriculum for Excellence through outdoor learning, 2010: 5).
‘Access to nature can significantly contribute to [children's] mental capital and wellbeing’.
(Faculty of Public Health, 2010).
Creativity is vital in education, learning needs to be enjoyable and excite children’s imagination
(Excellence and Enjoyment: DfES, 2003)
'The teacher need not be the source of the information, which could come from books or other sources…but whatever the source of information, it is the teachers role to bring the ideas to the children in a way that allows them to try them out'
'We need to be activating learners as instructional resources for one another' (Wiliam, 2011).
To be able to identify and plot main locations and features on a blank map of John Innes Park.
To be able to identify obscure pictures of items in the John Innes Park and plot them on the map.
To be able to discuss findings on the map to the whole class.
...an important aspect was that boundaries were negotiated and so fitted with the…[schools]…ethos of respecting children`s views'.
(Waite, 2007: 169)
Taking account of children`s feelings is extremely important for learning, as emotional engagement tends to make memories more lasting'.
(Carver 2003, cited in Waite, 2007)
'...a low adult to child ratio helps provid[e] closer support to individuals and a child initiated discussion can take place with adult intervention at relevant times’.
(Waite, 2007: 170).
This is in accordance to teaching standard 4-
Plan and teaches well-structured lessons; set homework and plan other out-of-class activities to consolidate and extend the knowledge and understanding pupils have acquired.
Scoffham states the importance of children learning map skills suggesting they ‘
are key skills that are needed in modern day life
’ (2004: 105).
Generative ideas emerge from joint thinking, from significant conversations, and from sustained, shared struggles to achieve new insights by partners in thought'.
(John-Steiner, 2000: 3)
'...if children take it in turns to lead the group or have a key role this helps promote social skills and team work helping keep the group interested and focused’.
(Waite, 2007: 170).
In relation to physical education, children ‘should take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and as a team’ (DfE, 2014: 199).
In regards to geography the NC states that children in key stage 2 should ‘use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies’ (DfE, 2014: 187).
Links to NC- Ma3 Shape, space and measures: understanding properties of position and movement.
“Games are a wonderful way for children to learn maths and enjoy themselves at the same time” (Skinner, 2005:35)
- “Visual- learning best through pictures, charts, diagrams, video, ICT, etc. Auditory- learning best through listening. Kinaesthetic- learning best through being physically engaged in a task.” (Fisher, cited in Arthur and Cremin, 2010:381)
Cotton suggests learning mathematical concepts precedes the ability to apply these concepts.
Formative assessment “
should be used to enhance all learners' opportunities to learn”
(Pickering, cited in Arthur and Cremin, 2010: 237).
Gipps and pickering in Arthur and Cremin “comparison with others who have been more successful is unlikely to motivate learners. It can also lead to their withdrawing from the learning process in areas where they have been made to feel they are 'no good' (2010:236).
teachers should share or develop learning objectives and success criteria with children [and] use lessons' plenaries to review and consolidate learning […] Involving children actively in the learning process is beneficial to all and […] if children are aware of their learning and have ownership of their next steps, they are more likely to benefit from the learning experience and be able to discuss the experience with confidence” (78).
To be able to identify where I live on a map.
To be able to gain a sense of place in relation to my surroundings.
'When considering place understanding...[it is important for children to] interact and be familiar with the places as [these are the places that] remain in children's minds because of their connections with people and events'
(Catling, 1998 cited in Cooper et al, 2010: 87).
'When talking about places, it is important to set the context of the place being studied'
(Cooper et al, 2010: 89).
What street do you live on?
Does anyone else live on your street?
Who lives closest to/ furthest from the school?
'Your questioning is an important part of your teaching. The need to ask a range of open and closed questions has been well documented'
Medwell, cited in Arthur and Cremin, 2010: 112).
How many steps do you think you would need to take to get to your school from your house?
How might we get to the school from...?
How long would it take to get there?
The use of internet mapping sites for locating places and planning routes is expanding rapidly'.
(Wiegand, 2006: 1).
To be able to plot hidden items on a map and write the corresponding co-ordinates.
To be able to compare time taken to find hidden objects of each group.
National Curriculum Links
'describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant'
'Plot specified points' on a 2-D grid
(DfE, 2013: 29).
'...children's ability to understand maps is innate, or acquired very early in life and with little or no prior map experience'
(Wiegand, 2006: 12).
Carver, C.S (2003) cited in Waite, S (2007) Children Learning Outside the Classroom, London: Sage
Cotton, T., (2013) Understanding and Teaching Primary Mathematics, 2nd edition. Harlow: Pearson.
Fisher, R., (2010) 'Thinking Skills' in Arthur, J., & T. Cremin., (ed.) Learning to Teach in the Primary School, 2nd edition. Oxon: Routledge.
Gipps, C., & A. Pickering., (2010) 'Assessment for learning: formative approaches' in Arthur, J., & T. Cremin., (ed.) Learning to Teach in the Primary School, 2nd edition. Oxon: Routledge.
Grainger, T., (2005) ‘Oral artistry: storytelling and drama’, in Wilson, A., (2005) Creativity in Primary Education, Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd
Harlen, W (2000). Teaching, Learning and Assessing Science 5-12. Great Britain: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Hayes, D., (2006) Inspiring Primary Teaching: Insights into excellent primary practice, Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd
Headington, R., (2011) 'Assessment and accountability' in Moyles, J., J. Georgeson., & J. Payler (ed.) Beginning Teaching Beginning Learning, 4th edition. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
Hopkins, C., S. Gifford., & S. Pepperell., (1999) Mathematics in the Primary School, 2nd edition. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Moyles, J., Georgeson. J., Payler, (2011) Beginning Teaching Beginning Learning. 2nd ed. England: Open University Press.
Scoffham, S (2004) Primary Geography, London: Geographical Association
Skinner,C., (2005) Maths Outdoors, London: BEAM
DfES (2003), Excellence and Enjoyment. England: Department for Education and Schools.
Waite, S (2007) Children Learning Outside the Classroom, London: Sage
DfE (2014) National curriculum in England: Geography programme of study, DfE, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/260481/PRIMARY_national_curriculum_11-9-13_2.pdf (accessed on 01.06.2014)
DfE (2014) National curriculum in England: Physical Education programme of study, DfE, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/260481/PRIMARY_national_curriculum_11-9-13_2.pdf (accessed on 02.06.2014)
DfE, (2014) Teaching Standards, available at http://www.mewan.net/teacher-recruitment/getfile.php?src=21/New+Teaching+Standards.pdf (accessed 01.06.2014)
Mantle of the expert is an imaginative-inquiry approach to learning which creates
‘meaningful, cross-curricular, contexts for learning [and ] involves children being given or adopting roles which…include the expertise, authority, knowledge and skills of specialists’.
(Grainger in Wilson, 2005: 40).
'the evidence has accumulated over at least thirty years of research...if schools adopt mixed ability they are more likely to use inclusive teaching strategies and to promote aspirations for their pupils'
The National Curriculum (2014) states that pupils should
'use maps...and digital/computer mapping to locate [areas]'.
Pupils at Key Stage 2 are '
to extend their knowledge and understanding beyond the local area'
(National Curriculum, 2013).
To be able to gain a sense of place in relation to the world and their surroundings.
To develop their knowledge of zooming in/out of their local environment.
To be able to plot co-ordinates on a 2D grid in one quadrant.
To be able to understand co-ordinates in further depth using internet games to support learning.
Estimation can be seen as very important as it ‘
allows [children] to obtain very approximate measures without…going through the measurement process’
(Barmby et al, 2009:142).