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Exotic Fruit

An informative presentation on three of the worlds most exotic fruits; Rumbutan, Mangosteen and Carambola.

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Transcript of Exotic Fruit

Exotic
Fruits Mangosteen Origin Flavour
and Use Nutritional Value Nutritional Value Flavour and Use Origin Origin Nutritional Value Flavour and Use The rambutan fruit is native to Malaysia and is one of the most exotic fruits in the world (iTi Tropicals 2013). Its popularity has grown from its early beginnings to now being cultivated throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Sri Lanka, Australia, Hawaii, Vietnam and Central America (Thulaja 2004). The fruit can grow up to 2 inches long and is oval-shaped with a thin, leathery rind covered with multiple tubercles (iTi Tropicals 2013). The fruit's exterior skin can often vary in colour from a greenish-yellow to orange or crimson. Inside, this skin offers a juicy flesh which is usually white or rose-tinted (iTi Tropicals 2013). Rambutan is a well-known source of Vitamin C. Research shows that eating nine to ten fruits and vegetables from the rambutan family per day is effective in lowering one’s blood pressure (fruitsinfo 2013).
Below is a list of Nutritive value per 100g of Rambutan
Principle Nutritive value
Protein 1.0 g
Cholesterol 0.0 mg
Thiamin 0.01mg
Vitamin C 7.4 mg
Sodium 16.5 mg
Potassium 63.0 mg
Calcium 33.0 mg
Vitamin A 4.5 IU
Iron 0.5 mg
(fruitsinfo 2013). Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana L.), nicknamed the "Queen of Fruits", originated in the Sunda Islands close to the Malay archipelago. Thailand has been suggested as the first country to domesticate the tree and is now presently one of the world's largest producers and exporters of the fruit. (Chomchalow, Songpol, & Na Songkhla 2008).
Fruit production requires very specific rainfall, soil and climate conditions. Considered as an ultra-tropical plant, the mangosteen requires an annual rainfall of at least 127cm, a rich organic soil, planted at an elevation between 450m and 1,500m and a temperature between 4.44°C and 37.78°C (Morton 1987). The mangosteen is commonly eaten fresh and chilled as a dessert fruit. Preparing a mangosteen for eating is extremely simple. Using a sharp knife, the fruit is cut in a circle through the skin deep enough to reach the cavity containing the flesh. The fruit is then opened and the white flesh is eaten (Videojug 2009). The luscious flesh is slightly acidic and mild in flavour. The fruit is also used to make preserves and the rind is used for tanning leather, and also producing a black dye (Morton 1987).
Mangosteens are now being used in new strategies for cancer treatment as xanthones from various parts of the tree possess a range of pharmacologic properties with the potential to reduce a wide range of human tumor cell types (Shan et al. 2011). The following values are based on 100g of the edible portion or white flesh of the fruit (Morton 1987).
Calories 60 - 63
Protein 80.2 - 84.9g
Fat 0.1- 0.6g
Total Carbohydrates 14.3 - 15.6g
Total Sugars 16.42 - 16.82g
Fibre 5 - 5.1g
Carambola, also known as star fruit is believed to have been originated from Sri Lanka or Moloccus, Indonesia.
The star fruit has been cultivated in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia for hundreds of years (Morton 1987).
The fruit can be grown at up to 4,000 feet in elevation and prefers full sun exposure. Star fruit requires the right amount of humidity and at least 70 inches or more of rainfall a year (Othman, Omar & Hashim 2004). Carambolas are primarily sold as a fresh fruit, however, the process of using the fruit for pickles, sauces, wine and jellies is done on a limited scale.
Star fruit is valued for its appearance and unusual shape. The fruit can be eaten fresh, cut up into a fruit salad, or used as a garnish for meat dishes. The juice makes a delicious ice drink alone or in combination with other beverages (Crane 1994).
The texture of the fruit is described as an overripe grape fruit and tastes like a mild orange with a sour apple after taste.
The riper the star fruit, the sweeter it tastes. (Bulsa 2011). The nutritional value per 100g of
the raw fruit is as follows:
Energy 31kcal
Carbohydrates 6.73g
Protein 1.04g
Total Fat 0.33g
Cholesterol 0mg
Dietary Fibre 2.80g
Sugars, Total 3.98g
(Nutrient Data Library USDA, 1987). Rambutan The rambutan is a flavoursome sweet fruit; Its tastes can be compared to the juicy texture to that of a kiwi fruit. With its juicy tastes it is no surprise that the rambutan is often made into smoothies, ice-cream, sorbets, jams, jellies and yoghurts (iTi Tropicals 2013). The rambutan fruit is also a known ingredient in medicine to heal tongue diseases, diarrhea and it is also commonly given to mothers after child birth (Thulaja 2004). Carambola References Chomchalow, N, Songpol, S & Na Songkhla, P 2008, Marketing and export of major tropical fruits from Thailand, Assumption University of Thailand Journal. [ONLINE] vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 133-143. Available at: http://www.journal.au.edu/au_techno/2008/jan08/journal113_article01.pdf [Accessed 08 May 2013].

Crane, J 1994, The carambola (star fruit), University of Florida. [ONLINE] vol. 12, pp 1-5. Available at: http://university.uog.edu/cals/people/PUBS/Carambol/MG26900.pdf [Accessed 08 May 2013].

D Bulsa 2011, Star fruit food taste adventure review. [ONLINE VIDEO] Available from: youtube.com [Accessed: 09 May 2013].

Fruitsinfo 2013, Rambutan fruit. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fruitsinfo.com/Rambutan-fruit.php [Accessed 08 May 2013].

iTi Tropicals 2013, Rambutan fruit facts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ititropicals.com/rambutan-fruit-fact-tidbits [Accessed 08 May 2013].

Morton, J 1987, Carambola, Purdue University: Centre for New Crops & Plant Products. pp. 125–128. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/carambola.html
[Accessed: 8 May 2013].

Morton, J 1987, Mangosteen, Purdue University: Center for New Crops & Plant Products. [ONLINE]
pp. 301-304. Available at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mangosteen.html
[Accessed 08 May 2013].

Othman, A, Omar, M & Hashim, N 2004. Technical document for market access on star fruit (carambola), International Plant Protection Convention. [ONLINE] pp. 1-12. Available at: https://www.ippc.int/file_uploaded/1115281083940_Technical_Document_Carambola.pdf
[Accessed 08 May 2013].

Shan, T, Ma, Q, Guo, K, Liu, J, Li, W, Wang, F & Wu, E 2011, Xanthones from mangosteen extracts as natural chemopreventive agents: potential anticancer drugs, National Center for Biotechnology Information. [ONLINE] vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 666-677. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902651 [Accessed 08 May 2013].

Thulaja, N 2004, Rambutan, Singapore Infopedia, National Library Board Singapore. [ONLINE] Available at: http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_208_2004-12-16.html [Accessed: 08 May 2013].

United States Department of Agriculture 2012, Nutrient data for 09060, Carambola, (starfruit), raw. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2192?qlookup=09060&format=Full&max=25&man=&lfacet=&new=1.[Accessed 08 May 2013].

VideoJug 2009, How to eat a mangosteen. [ONLINE VIDEO] Available from: youtube.com
[Accessed: 08 May 2013]. By DeArne McCarthy, Shahn Baskeyfield & Tamara Patterson
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