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Life is Cellular

good stuff
by

Jeanette Morales

on 18 September 2015

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Transcript of Life is Cellular

Life is Cellular
END OF SECTION
The Cell Theory





These discoveries led to the cell theory.
The Discovery of the Cell

Besides one having a nucleus, what are the other defining characteristics of
prokaryotes
and
eukaryotes
?
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
and
Eukaryotes

Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

All cells:
are surrounded by a barrier called a cell membrane.
at some point contain DNA.
Electron microscopes
1931 Ernst Ruska
reveal details 1000 times smaller than those visible in
light microscopes
.

Electron microscopy can be used to visualize
only nonliving, preserved cells and tissues
.
Exploring the Cell
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Endosymbiotic Theory
explains the origins of eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells:
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 
Cells are classified into two categories, depending on whether they contain a
nucleus
.

The nucleus is a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of
DNA
.

The nucleus controls many of the cell's activities.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) 1981
Produce three-dimensional images of cells on atomic levels
Specimens do not have to be cut into thin slices
Exploring the Cell
Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)
Used to study cell structures and large protein molecules
Specimens must be cut into ultra-thin slices
Exploring the Cell

The cell theory states:
All living things are composed of cells.
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
New cells are produced from existing cells.
The Discovery of the Cell
Early Microscopes

In 1665, Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork, a plant material.


Cells are the basic units of life.
The Discovery of the Cell
Eukaryotes
Salamanders
Evidences:

Mitochondria
and
chloroplast
have
prokaryotic ribosomes
.

Both copy themselves separate from the cell.

Each contains circular pieces of DNA like prokaryotes.
Endosymbiosis
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 
Prokaryotic cells:
Eukaryotes
are cells that contain nuclei.



Prokaryotes
are cells that do not contain nuclei.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

What is the cell theory?
The Discovery of the Cell
 Life Is Cellular
Prokaryotes
Neuron
Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEMs)
Bacteria
Neuron
Exploring the Cell
Needle
Staple
House Fly Foot
Blood
Pollen
Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM)
Why?
contain a
nucleus
in which their
genetic material
is separated from the rest of the cell.
are generally
larger and more complex
than prokaryotic cells.
generally contain dozens of structures and internal membranes.
many are
highly specialized
.
Plants
,
animals
,
fungi
, and
protists
are eukaryotes.
have genetic material that is
not contained in a nucleus
.
do not have membrane-bound organelles.
are generally
smaller and simpler
than eukaryotic cells.
all are considered a type of
Bacteria
.
In
1838
, Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants were made of cells.
In
1839
, Theodor Schwann stated that all animals were made of cells.
In
1855
, Rudolph Virchow concluded that new cells were created only from division of existing cells.
1665
1850
1825
1670
Robert Hooke
describes cells
Anton van Leeuwehoek
first to observe
under microscope living cells
Full transcript