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Organic Chemistry

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Thomas S

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry

Due to our mass combustion of fossil fuels the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is increasing at an exponential rate causing additional layers of greenhouse gases to form and trap even more of the suns radiation and heat up the atmosphere even more than it already has.
The Greenhouse effect is a natural process where the solar radiation which passes through our atmosphere is then trapped and reflected back in because of the greenhouse gases like Carbon Dioxide in our atmosphere. These heat reflective properties are caused the molecules radiative forcing this differs for each of the greenhouse gases.
As Hydrocarbons and the other organic compounds combust they produce Carbon Dioxide as well as other Greenhouse Gases such as Sulfur Dioxide when the impurities removed from the crude oil combust.
The Greenhouse effect
Global Warming
The diagram shows that the Carbon Dioxide is predominantly produced by humans through industry of which a large percentage of is caused by fossil fuels including hydrocarbons.
The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Organic Chemistry
Alkanes and the Environment
Alkanes as Fuels
Complete Combustion:
Alkane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
e.g. hexane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
2C6H14 + 19O2 → 12CO2 + 14H2O
Incomplete Combustion:
Alkane + oxygen → carbon monoxide + carbon + water
e.g. hexane + oxygen → carbon monoxide + water
2C6H14 +13O2 → 12CO +14H2O
The most common use of petroleum products is as fuel for vehicles, heating and generating electricity. These products are burned in order to release energy that is stored in these hydrocarbons. This burning can be in the form of complete or incomplete combustion. Complete combustion is when there is enough oxygen to fully combust the alkane and only create water and carbon dioxide as products, while incomplete combustion is when there is a
lack of oxygen and so carbon monoxide or carbon soot is formed.
Incomplete combustion is harmful to the environment because many
toxic substances can be released because of it such as carbon
monoxide which is poisonous for humans. In a car engine, the
fuel igniting can create temperatures exceeding 1000°C. This means nitrogen and oxygen in the air can react to form toxic gases such as nitrogen monoxide.
Sulfur dioxide is released when fossil fuels are burnt due to the impurities in them. This dissolves in water vapour to form sulfurous acid:
This increase in temperature is causing the melting of the ice caps and more erratic weather patterns which lead to an increased frequency of flooding all over the world.
Exam Style Question
Mark Scheme
Alkanes as Fuels
Acid Rain
Global Warming
Acid Rain
Rain is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves in it but acid rain is rain that is more acidic than normal. Natural events like volcanic eruptions can cause it. However human activity is the major cause of acid rain.
Alkanes and the Environment
Organic Chemistry
This is then oxidised to form sulfuric acid, H SO . This is what makes the rain acidic.
Acid rain damages the environment a lot. It acidifies lakes, rivers and soil which make living there difficult or impossible. Buildings may even be damaged, particularly those built from limestone.
Sulfur dioxide is removed from waste gases in a process called flue gas desulfurisation. The sulfur dioxide is removed using a base e.g. calcium oxide.
However, one problem with this is that carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product which contributes to global warming.
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