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How are nanomaterials used in medicine and research?

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Josh Gal

on 17 May 2016

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Transcript of How are nanomaterials used in medicine and research?

Identified and tested as being good conveyors of drugs for targeted therapies.
Gold (Au) nanomaterials
How are nanomaterials used in medicine and research?

Provide a base to ‘image and diagnose diseases, to selectively deliver therapeutic agents, to sensitize cells and tissues, to monitor and guide surgical procedures, and to administer electromagnetic radiation to disease sites’. (Erik C Dreaden, 2012)
About Gold Nanomaterials
Gold Nanomaterials or nanoparticles can be used in both targeted cancer treatment and detection.
Targeting Cancer
Possibilities are endless especially in relation to medicine and research...

However can also pose problems relating to their fate, behavior, disposition, and toxicity...
Detremental effects to nanomaterials
Colvin, V. (2003). The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials. Nat Biotechnol, 21(10), pp.1166-1170.
Erik C Dreaden, M. (2012). Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drugdelivery.Therapeutic delivery, [online] 3(4), p.457. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3596176/#R2 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Google Books. (2016). Isotopes in Nanoparticles. [online] Available at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Hcn1CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA481&lpg=PA481&dq=examples+of+nanoparticles+(elements)&source=bl&ots=ZS8ebXTpEN&sig=U1OlSKeLMpep9uRmq4qBz7Vk5fc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPmfj1uJLMAhWnXaYKHeWmAycQ6AEIQjAH#v=onepage&q=examples%20of%20nanoparticles%20(elements)&f=false [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Klaine, S., Alvarez, P., Batley, G., Fernandes, T., Handy, R., Lyon, D., Mahendra, S., McLaughlin, M. and Lead, J. (2008). NANOMATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: BEHAVIOR, FATE, BIOAVAILABILITY, AND EFFECTS. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27(9), p.1825.
Monash.edu. (2016). Nanomaterials - Monash University. [online] Available at: http://www.monash.edu/research/capabilities/leading/nano [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Nanowerk. (2016). Nanotechnology and the Environment. [online] Available at: http://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-and-the-environment.php [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
New England Journal of Medicine. (2016). Nanomedicine — NEJM. [online] Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra0912273?viewType=Print [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Niehs.nih.gov. (2016). Nanomaterials. [online] Available at: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/sya-nano/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Peer D, e. (2016). Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. - PubMed - NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18654426 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Pubs.acs.org. (2016). [online] Available at: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00534 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Sustainable Nano. (2014). Nano Contaminants: How Nanoparticles Get Into the Environment. [online] Available at: http://sustainable-nano.com/2014/05/13/nano-contaminants-how-nanoparticles-get-into-the-environment/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Salata, O. (2004). Journal of Nanobiotechnology, [online] 2(1), p.3. Available at: http://jnanobiotechnology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-3155-2-3 [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].
Currently, the majority of commercial nanoparticle and nanomaterial applications in medicine are based around drug delivery.
The major trend in future development is to produce nanomaterials that are multifunctional and can be controllable by external signals, essentially turning them into nano-devices.
Future Directions
Nanomaterial refers to a
material having nanometre dimensioned particles or constituents, or a material that is produced by nanotechnology
The concept related to nanomaterials and nanotechnology was first idealized by Richard Feynman
Nanomaterials offer exciting possibilities in the ways of medicine and research
Many diseases originate from alterations in biology at the molecular or nanoscale level.
This is said to be where the ideas and application of nanomaterials can be used as they too are nanometres in size.
Nanomaterials such as gold, silicon, zinc, nickel have shown promising advantages as drug and gene delivery systems.
Such as cancer, cell miscommunication and sometimes life threatening diseases
Gold Nanomaterials have demonstrated a unique combination of physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties which is unlike other biomedical nanotechnologies.
Benefitial Gold Properites
Medical research include improvents on...
fluorescent biological labels,
drug and gene delivery,
bio detection of pathogens,
detection of proteins,
probing of DNA structure,
tissue engineering,
tumour destruction via heating (hyperthermia), separation and purification of biological molecules and cells,
MRI contrast enhancement,
phagokinetic studies,
advances in brain, spinal cord and cardiovascular repair.
Some manufacturing and technological solutions include advances on
the bionic eye,
green materials for consumer products and healthcare,
next generation aerospace metals,
high-performance solar cells,
smart materials for medical diagnostics,
hybrid car fuel cells.

Gold is inert, is a metal,
has free flowing electrons, light interacts with electrons on the nanoparticle surface (surface plasmon resonance)
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