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BIO104 - Anatomy and Physiology II

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Dr. Candace Smith

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of BIO104 - Anatomy and Physiology II

Anatomy and Physiology II -Glands
-Negative Feedback
-Biochemistry The Endocrine System Tests for Diabetes Mellitus
Blood samples
glucometer (glucose monitor)
glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) PANCREATIC DISORDERS Diabetes mellitus
Ineffective secretion or use of insulin
Type I - juvenile diabetes
Type II - adult diabetes
Glucose monitoring - Diet
Weight reduction - Medication PANCREATIC DISORDERS STEROID ABUSE IN SPORTS The parathyroid glands regulate the use of calcium and phosphorus
Kidney stones
Calcium taken from bones
Tetany - low levels of calcium affects the nerves PARATHYROID DISORDERS Blood tests are done to diagnose
Due to overactivity of thyroid gland
Hypersecretion of thyroxin
Due to inflammation of thyroid gland
Thyroid isn’t able to secrete enough thyroxin THYROID DISORDERS Hyperfunction of Pituitary
Hypofunction of Pituitary
Diabetes Insipidus
Caused by posterior lobe dysfunction PITUITARY DISORDERS Endocrine gland disturbances may be caused by:
Hypoactivity DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM There are many hormones produced throughout the body originating from many different glands and organs
Hormones secreted in various tissues throughout the body
Gastric mucosa
Produces gastrin which stimulates digestive enzymes
Mucosa of Small Intestines
Secretin – stimulates pancreas to release fluid that neutralized stomach acid after it reaches large intestine
Cholecystokinin – stimulates contraction of gall bladder to release bile
Stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
Temporary endocrine gland
Secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Stumulates mother’s ovaries to secrete progesterone to maintain uterine lining OTHER HORMONES PRODUCED IN THE BODY Attached to the third ventricle of the brain
Produces the hormone melatonin
Amount of light affects the amount of melatonin secreted
Causes body temperature to drop PINEAL GLAND Secreted by Islets of Langerhans
Specialized endocrine cells of pancreas
A cells – Glucagon
B cells - Insulin
Promotes use of glucose in cells before removing from blood
Promotes fatty acid, fat and AA transport into cells
Promotes protein synthesis
Secreted in response to low concentration of glucose in blood
Raises blood glucose levels
Stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose PANCREATIC HORMONES Located behind stomach
Functions as:
Exocrine gland
Secretes pancreatic juices into small intestine to become digestive juices
Endocrine gland
Produces insulin and glucagon PANCREAS Testes - male sex organ
Promotes maturation of sperm
Responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Helps maintain spermatogenesis at a constant rate GONADS - Male Ovaries - female sex organ
Promotes maturation of ovum
Stimulates blood vessel growth to endometrium of uterus
Responsible for development and maintenance of female sex characteristics
Secreted by ovarian follicle after egg is released
Maintains uterine lining for pregnancy
If no fertilization occurs, menstruation occurs GONADS - Female Epinephrine
Secreted in response to cortisol under sympathetic nervous control
Increases HR, dialates bronchioles, increases glycogen breakdown
Stimulates vasoconstriction in skin and viscera
Stimulates vasodilation in skeletal muscles
Similar but less potent than epinephrine ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES Two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney; each has two parts
Cortex - secretes 3 groups corticoids
Sex hormones (androgens and estrogens)
Medulla - secretes
norepinephrine ADRENAL GLANDS The thymus gland is both an endocrine gland and lymphatic organ
Large at birth, then decreases in size
The thymus secretes a large number of hormones
Role in development of immune system
Assist in development of T-lymphocytes THYMUS GLAND On posterior of thyroid gland
Function – maintain calcium and phosphorous balance
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Helps control blood calcium levels – increases
Increases osteoclast activity and decrease osteoblast activity
Increases Ca2+ reabsorption from kidneys PARATHYROID GLANDS Stimulated by TSH from pituitary
Control rate of metabolism
How cells use glucose and O2
Stimulates tissue growth
Stimulates breakdown of glycogen in liver
Helps control blood calcium levels - decreases
Decreases osteoclast activity and increase osteoblast activity THYROID HORMONES Released as vasopressin
Converts to ADH in bloodstream
Increases H2O reabsorption in kidneys
Conserves H2O
Helps maintain normal blood volume ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) Promotes development of glandular tissue in breast
Stimulates production of milk
Present, but unknown function in males PROLACTIN (PRL) Stimulates ovulation
Stimulates formation of corpus luteum in ovary so it can produce progesterone LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH) Stimilulates secretion of cortisol from adrenal glands
Stimulates growth of adrenal glands ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH) Also called somatotrophin
Stimulates mitosis
Levels directly affect appearance of a person
Regulated by 2 factors from hypothalamus
Somatostatin (GHIH)
Secreted during hyperglycemia GROWTH HORMONE (GH) Divided into two lobes
anterior pituitary lobe is larger and produces seven hormones – Growth H, TSH, Adrenocorticotropic CTH, Follicle Stimulating FSH, Luteinizing H, Prolactin, Melanocyte MSH (intermediate lobe)
posterior pituitary lobe is smaller and consists primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells secretes oxytocin & (Vasopressin) Antidiuretic hormone. HORMONES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND Control system that monitors hormone levels
Lack of hormone stimulates secretion of more or different hormone
Typically, the hormone made is the signal to shut off NEGATIVE FEEDBACK RECEPTORS Chemical messengers
Secreted directly into blood
Travel to specific tissues
Bind to specific receptors
Either proteins or steroids
Have effect by modifying cellular activity HORMONES ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Type 1 diabetes
Immune system attacks Beta and Alpha cells of the Pancreas
Thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental

Type 2 diabetes
Insulin resistance in cells
Pancrease can’t keep up. Glucose stays in blood
Genetic and Environmental
Highly linked to obesity and waist circumfrence What’s the Difference? Hyperfunction of the Adrenal
Cushing’s syndrome
Hypofunction of Adrenal Cortex
Addison’s disease ADRENAL DISORDERS Mineralcorticoids
Aldosterone primary mineralcorticoid
Increases Na reabsorption in kidneys
Also assists with H2O reabsorption
Helps maintain blood pressure
Cortisol and cortisone
Secreted in times of stress
Sex Hormones
Androgens and Estrogens
Secreted in smaller quantities than at gonads ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES Thyroid glands
Located in the anterior part of neck
Extremely vascularized
Function – regulate body’s metabolism
Requires iodine to synthesize hormones
Secretes 3 hormones:
Thyroxine – T4
Triiodthyronine – T3
Calcitonin THYROID GLANDS Only released during childbirth
Causes uterine muscle contractions
Causes ejection of milk from breast
Pitocin = synthetic version OXYTOCIN Stimulates development of eggs in ovaries and sperm in testes
Stimulates estrogen production in females FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) Causes cells of thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones
Stimulates growth of thyroid gland THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) Located at the base of the brain and connected to the hypothalamus
Divided into anterior and posterior lobes
Known as the master gland because of its major influence in body’s activities
Hypothalamus-Pituitary master – the hypothalamus controls the pituitary with chemicals PITUITARY
GLAND Secretion of hormones or chemical messengers that coordinate and direct activities of target cells and organs
Exocrine glands – have ducts that carry secretions to a surface
Endocrine glands – do not have ducts; secretions go directly into bloodstream
8 major glands of endocrine system
FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Increases skin pigmentation MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH) -The structure and function of the digestive organs.
-Peristalsis and absorption
-Caloric intake versus nutrient intake
-Body mass The Digestive System and Nutrition Pancreatitis
Stomach cancer
Inflammatory bowel disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Hiatal hernia
Absorption of water, Vits K and B, electrolytes, elimination of feces
Cecum - Ileocecal valve separates ileum from cecum
Anal Canal
Anal sphincters LARGE INTESTINE Functions of the liver
Manufactures bile which is necessary for fat digestion
Produces and stores glucose in the form of glucogen
Detoxifies alcohol, drugs and other harmful substances
Manufactures blood proteins LIVER/ACCESSORY ORGAN OF DIGESTION 2.5 cm diameter; 20’ long
Extends from pyloric sphincter to ileocecal valve
Finishes digestion: absorbs nutrients and passes residue to LI
Site of most absorption
Plicae – Folds that increase surface area
Villi – Fingerlike extensions of plicae SMALL INTESTINE Endocrine prostaglandins secrete gastrin
Exocrine glands
HCl - produced by parietal cells
Destroys bacteria on food
Converts pepsinogen to pepsin
Pepsinogen – produced by chief cells
Converted into pepsin by HCl
Thick and alkaline – protective coating for stomach
Thin and watery – creates fluid medium for chemical rxns
Intrinsic factor – produced by parietal cells
Necessary for absorption of vitamin B12
Rennin – only found in infants and children
Prepares milk for further digestion
Chyme – semi-fluid mixture of food particles and gastric juices GASTRIC JUICES Stomach is divided into 3 portions
Fundus - upper part
Greater curvature (body) - middle
Pylorus - lower portion
Pyloric sphincter
Majority of digestion occurs here STOMACH Muscular tube
Pharynx to stomach
Behind trachea
Cardiac/gastroesophageal sphincter ESOPHAGUS Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
Small intestines
Large intestines ORGANS OF DIGESTION ORGANS OF DIGESTION Peritoneum - serous membrane
Parietal peritoneum/Mesentery - part that attaches to posterior wall of abdominal cavity
Visceral peritoneum/Greater omentum - anterior portion that protects abdominal organs
Adipose and fat LINING OF THE
Epithelium, loose connective tissue, smooth muscle
Secretes mucus
Loose connective tissue with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, glands
Circular muscle and longitudinal muscle
Responsible for peristalsis LAYERS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ORGANS Break food into smaller pieces
Change food chemically into fat, carbohydrates, and protein
Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of small intestines
Eliminate waste products of digestion FUNCTIONS OF THE
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Prepares urea, the chief waste product of protein metabolism
Stores vitamins A, D, and B complex
Breaks down hormones no longer useful to the body
Removes old red blood cells and recycles iron content LIVER/ACCESSORY ORGAN OF DIGESTION Pancreas
HCO3 to neutralize HCl
Trypsin – proteins to AA
Amylase – Carbs to sugars
Lipase – Fats to fatty acids
Insulin and glucagon
Gall bladder
Bile – continues fat breakdown Divided into three sections
First 12”
Ampulla of Vater – entrance of bile duct and pancreatic duct
Presence of chyme stimulates secretion
Endocrine glands secrete secretin and cholecystokinin
8’ long
10-12’ SMALL INTESTINE cont’d Throat
Extends from base of skull to level of C6
Serves as both respiratory and digestive system
Opens into larynx and esophagus
Epiglottis PHARYNX Salivary glands
Parotid – amylase
Submandibular – mucin and ptyalin
Sublingual – Only secretes mucus and H2O
Moistens and lubricates food
Contains enzymes
Ptyalin Palate
Hard and soft palate
Multi-layered skeletal muscles
Papillae MOUTH Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Malnutrition Nutritional requirements don’t change
After 50, drop caloric requirements by 10% per each 10 years
Deficiencies in nutrient absorption
Poor nutrition for those on fixed incomes and in nursing facilities Changes to Caloric requirements Heat gain:
Shivering thermogenesis
Decrease blood flow to skin
Heat loss:
Peripheral blood vessels dilate
Sweat glands are stimulated and we perspire
Respiratory centers are stimulated Thermoregulation BMR – basal metabolic rate
Reflects the expenditure (the breakdowns) of a person at rest.
Highly variable
Recipe for weightloss:
Calories consumed – Calories ingested: negative numbers cause weight loss.
Average individual has ~1680 Cal/day expenditure Metabolic Rates The average calorie expenditure of the body in a time period. Metabolic Rates Minerals – salts that are important for proper body function i.e. NaCl, Ca2+
Vitamins – important for the proper function of the body i.e. Vitamin K
Water – important for being alive. Almost every process we do requires water. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water http://www.mypyramid.gov/ Food Pyramid 5 basic Food groups Malnutrition
Balanced diet
Amino and fatty acids
Vitamins Nutrition Anabolism: Important for gene expression and all life function
RNA: catabolism gives urea
Uric acid
Gout Nucleic acid metabolism Homeostasis application:
Our blood pH must stay b/t 7.4-8.4
What happens if we break down all our fat and proteins?
Diabetic ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis Cannot be made in the body, must be ingested
Children are screened for protein deficiency diseases driven by metabolic disorders (AKA – can’t absorb the AA) Essential amino acids LDL – low density lipoprotein (“Bad”)
HDL – high density lipoprotein (“Good”) Lipid Transport Breakdown of carbohydrates to eventually make ATP
ATP= adenosine triphosphate (AKA energy) Glycolysis All the chemical reactions in the body
Catabolism – breakdown
Anabolism – build up
Where nutrients are generated/absorbed
Where wastes are generated Metabolism Define metabolism
Basic steps of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
Lipid metabolism, transport, and distribution
Protein metabolism
Nucleic acid metabolism
Balanced diets
Metabolic rates and homeostasis in body temperature
Age-related changes in metabolism Outline ~30% of our children in the U.S. are obese THIS IS A PROBLEM! Anabolism:
Take free amino acids in the body and build new proteins Catabolism:
Break down ingested protein to get free amino acids Amino Acid Metabolism Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates – sugars (mono and disaccharides) Gluc-, glyc-
Lipids – fatty acids and glycerol lip-
Proteins – amino acids proteo-
Nucleic Acids – DNA, RNA nucl- The Macromolecules Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism Lipids Protein The synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules like lactic acid, glycerol, or some amino acids. Gluconeogenesis Urinary System -Excretion
-The glomerulus
-Urine Kidney transplants are performed in cases of chronic and debilitating kidney disease and renal failure of both kidneys DISORDERS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Dialysis is the treatment for kidney failure in which blood is passed through a device in order to remove waste, salt, and excess water from the blood DISORDERS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Water content of food ~1000mL
Liquid consumption ~1200mL
Metabolic water production ~300mL
Urination ~1200mL
Evaporation at skin ~750mL
Evaporation at lungs ~400mL
Feces ~150mL
APPROXIMATELY 2500mL OUTPUT Water Balance (Homeostasis) As the bladder fills, reflex triggered
Usually ~200 mL
Internal and external sphincters open
Leaves ~10 mL in the bladder normally Micturition Reflex Albuminuria – large proteins present
Glucosuria – glucose present
Hematuria – blood cells present
Pyuria – pus (neutrophils) present
Ketones – ketones present (indicates unsufficient insulin) Abnormal Urine Constituents Renin – regulates arterial BP
Aldosterone – Increase H2O and Na retention at kidneys
ADH - Increase H2O retention at kidneys
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
ReducesH2O and Na retention at kidneys
Secreted by heart cells
PTH – Increases Ca reabsorption at kidneys
Erythropoietin – Promotes RBC production Hormones URINARY SYSTEM Glomerular filtration
Blood flowing through has high pressure
Only RBC’s and plasma proteins remain in the capillary
Occurs in renal tubule
Glucose, AA, vitamins, HCO3, some electrolytes, water
~ 90% of water that leaves blood is reabsorbed and returned to blood
Moves substances from pericapillary tubules into urine in proximal and distal convoluted tubules
K, creatine, histamine, H ions, drugs, ammonia URINE FORMATION
2 Kidneys
2 Ureters
1 Bladder
Kidney stones
Neurogenic bladder Acute kidney failure
Chronic renal failure
Acute glomerulonephritis
Chronic glomerulonephritis DISORDERS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Clear yellow
pH 4.6-8
Specific gravity of 1.010-1.025 Characteristics of Urine Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting tubule Renal Tubule Bowman’s capsule
Surrounds glomerulus
Collects filtrate from blood
Afferent/efferent arteriole Renal Corpuscle Functional unit of kidney
Over 100 million/kidney
Blood supply
2 portions
Renal corpuscle
Renal tubule Nephrons Layers
Contains Loop of Henle
Renal Pelvis Kidneys cont’d Two kidneys
Bean shaped
Approx. 10 cms long
Back of abdomen
Blood Supply
Delivered by renal artery
Taken away by renal vein Kidneys Rid body of waste materials:
Nitrogenous wastes
Certain salts
Excess water
Regulate Fluid volume
Maintain electrolyte balance
Controls pH of blood
Secretes hormones
Aids in production of Vit D URINARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. urethra bladder ureters Distal convoluted tubule to ureter
One from each kidney
Travels from the ureters into the bladder
Holds ~500 mL
Bladder to urethra
Urethra to Urethral/Urinary meatus
7-8” in males
1-1.5” in females Pathway of Urine -Gestation
-Reproductive organs
-Hormonal Influences The Reproductive System Asymptomatic
Discharge possible (male and female)
Responsive to Antibiotics Gonorrhea Chlamydia
Genital warts
Genital herpes
TRANSMITTED DISEASE Male reproductive disorders
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Infections of female reproductive organs
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Toxic shock syndrome
Yeast infection DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female reproductive disorders
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Fibroid tumors DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Causes of infertility
Damage to fallopian tubes
Low sperm count
Hormonal imbalance INFERTILITY Hormones that act on ovaries
Stimulates maturation of ova in follicles
Stimulates ovulation
Stimulates formation of corpus luteum in ovary so it can produce progesterone
Hormones from ovaries
Assists maturation of ova
Responsible for development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Stimulates blood vessel growth to endometrium of uterus
Helps maintain endometrial uterine lining for pregnancy FEMALE HORMONES Menopause - cessation of monthly menstrual cycle
Usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, signaling the end of follicle growth and ovulation
Atrophy of nearly all reproductive organs MENOPAUSE Lobules
Lactiferous ducts
Oxytocin MAMMARY GLANDS Stages of the menstrual cycle
Follicle stage
FSH stimulates follicle and ovum to mature
Ovulation stage
FSH stops
LH stimulates ovulation, development of endometrium lining
Corpus luteum stage
Corpus luteum secretes progesterone
Maintains development of endometrium lining
Prevents FSH secretion
Menstruation stage (Menses)
LH secretion stops
Corpus luteum breaks down and progesterone secretion stops
Endometrium lining thins and breaks down
FSH secreted by ant. Pit.
Menarche – first menstruation THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Extends from cervix of uterus to external genitalia (vulva)
Passage for menstrual flow
Receives penis during intercourse
Birth canal VAGINA Function
Produce eggs (ova)
Produce estrogens (estrogen and progesterone)
Components and terms
Graafian follicles
Sacs that hold ova
1 follicle fully matures ~ every 28 days
1000’s per ovary
Release of mature ovum from follicle
Occurs ~ 2 wks before menstruation
Ovum travels down fallopian tube
Corpus luteum
Portion of mature follicle that remains in ovary after ovulation
Secretes progesterone for ~10 days
If no + feedback from HCG, degenerates into corpus albicans OVARIES Produce eggs
Maintain eggs
Transport eggs
Provide environment for fertilization
Provide environment for embryonic/fetal development
Fructose – provides energy for sperm
Prostaglandins – contribute to viability and mobility of sperm
Proteins – cause coagulation after ejection
Slightly alkaline
50-150 million sperm/mL
3-5 mL ejaculated SEMINAL FLUID Produce sperm
Maintain sperm
Transport sperm
Introduce sperm to female
Produce hormones FUNCTIONS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Male reproductive organs
Two testes - Scrotum
Seminal duct/glands
Penis - Prostate
Female reproductive organs
Two ovaries - Uterus
Two fallopian tubes - Vagina ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION Reproductive organs are the only organs in the human body that differ between male and female
For about two months the embryo develops without sexual identity
The influence of the X or Y chromosome determines sex of fetus DIFFERENIATION OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS During sexual intercourse (coitus) sperm from the testes are deposited in the vagina
Millions of sperm cells swim to ovum
Conception occurs when two gametes combine to form zygote (fertilized egg cell)
Formation of one-celled individual with 46 chromosomes FERTILIZATION Contains necessary organs capable of creating offspring
Synthesizes hormones necessary for the development of reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
(not for the faint of heart) HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
AIDS is the syndrome that compromises the immune system
People rarely die of “AIDS”- complications
ANYONE can have HIV and not know it
There is no cure HIV/AIDS Lowers pH of vagina in women, discharge
Asymptomatic in men
Can be cured with medication Trichomoniasis Primary – 1 chancre
Secondary – rash, mucous membrane involvement
Tertiary – symptoms disappear, involves brain, 10-20 years = death
Curable in early stages with penicillin Syphilis Not curable
Treatable Genital Herpes Often asymptomatic, especially in women
Discharge (women and men), burning when urinating
Treatable with Antibiotics Chlamydia
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
Zygote intrafallopian transfer
Donor eggs and embryos Treatments
Fertility drugs
Artificial insemination
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Egg extraction INFERTILITY Vulva
Labia majora
2 large skin folds that enclose other genitalia
Mons pubis
Protects and covers internal genitalia
Labia minora
2 thin skin folds that protect clitoris
Area between 2 labia minora
Homologue to male penis
Bartholin’s glands
Produce lubricating secretion for intercourse FEMALE EXTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS Behind bladder
3 parts
Internal os
External os
Endometrium UTERUS Also called uterine tubes or oviducts
Transport egg from ovaries to uterus
Extend upwards from uterus
Do not attach directly to ovaries FALLOPIAN TUBES Hormones that act on testes
Stimulates production of sperm in tubules
Stimulates testosterone production
Hormones from testes
Promotes maturation of sperm
Responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Helps maintain spermatogenesis at a constant rate MALE HORMONES Erection
Erectile tissue in shaft fills with blood
Seminal fluid leaves seminal vesicle and enters urethra
Seminal fluid expelled from urethra MALE SEXUAL RESPONSE Prostate
Prevents passage of urine during ejaculation
Bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands)
Secrete alkaline mucus in response to sexual stimulation
Provides lubrication
Neutralized acidity of
Male urethra MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS cont’d Gonad
Located in scrotum
Divided into lobules
Contain seminiferous tubules
Interstitial cells produce testosterone
Stimulates growth and development of male reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, sex drive TESTES Gametes
Male - sperm
Female – egg
Gonads (primary sex organs)
Male - testes
Female – ovaries
Male – spermatogenesis
Female - oogenesis Terminology Currently, vaccine for prevention of some strains
Can be associated with cervical cancer Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) AKA Genital Warts External (Vulva)
Labia majora
Mons pubis
Labia minora
Bartholin’s glands Internal
Fallopian tubes
Sac that contains testes
Body (shaft)
Glans penis
Long (20’) tube where sperm mature
Vas deferens (ductus deferens)
Transport sperm to seminal vesicle
Seminal vesicle
Glands that produce most of seminal fluid
Flagella become functional
Ejaculatory duct
Empties into urethra

Penis Internal
Vas Deferens
Seminal Vesicles
Ejaculatory Duct
Bulbourethral glands
Seminal fluid MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Progressive deterioration of mental ability
Progressive deterioration of motor control Huntington Disease Marfan – Autosomal dominant
Huntington – Autosomal dominant
Deafness – Autosomal recessive
Albinism – Autosomal recessive
Sickle-cell anemia – Autosomal recessive
Cystic fibrosis – Autosomal recessive
Hemophilia – sex linked
Color blindness – sex linked Chromosomal abnormalities Dominant traits, if present, will ALWAYS show up
Recessive traits may or may not show up depending on how many copies are present Dominant versus Recessive Inheritance So what? (Genes) DNA
Dominance and recessivity
Chromosomal abnormalities Genes and Inheritance Dilation - ~8 hours
Expulsion - ~2 hours
Full dilation of cervix
Emergence of fetus (episiotomy)
Placental - ~ 1 hour post delivery
Blood loss Labor and delivery Respiratory rate and tidal volume increase
Blood volume increases
Nutritional demand up 10-30%
Glomerular filtration rate up 50%
Uterus increases almost 20X normal What happens to Mom? Embryogenesis
Gestation Terminology check Temporary structure in the uterine wall that serves as a site for diffusion between maternal and fetal circulation The placenta Integument – accessories and epidermis
Skeleton - cartilages
Nervous – all neural tissue
Endocrine – pit. Gland and medullae
Respiratory – nasal passages
Digestive – mucous epithelium Ectoderm Differentiation and development
Three stages of prenatal development
Three germ layers and embryonic and placental development
Maternal and fetal organ interaction
Labor and Delivery
Postnatal changes
Basic genetic principles Outline Genetics and Heredity Chromosomes Nucleic acids

Makes a “code”

Holds all the keys What is DNA? Infancy
Rapid physical and developmental growth
Development continues
Period for sexual maturity
Time of getting “stuff” and reproducing
Aging, disease, death Postnatal stages Integument
Misc. Mesoderm The innermost layer: will become
Reproductive Endoderm Gastrulation: the involution and movement of the cells of the blastocyst
Endoderm: the innermost layer after gastrulation
Mesoderm: the middle layer
Ectoderm: the outside layer Three Germ Layers Third Trimester The Second Trimester Weeks 1-9 The First Trimester 1st Trimester
Organ systems
2nd Trimester
Development of organ systems to completion
Human appearance
3rd Trimester
Rapid growth
Adipose tissue
Functional organ systems Gestation and prenatal development Fusion of two haploid gametes
Occurs as a result of copulation
Many sperm are required to break through the corona radiata
Only one sperm does the fertilization Conception and Fertilization Broken into several stages:
Conception and Fertilization
Embryological development
Fetal development
Prenatal development
Postnatal development
Maturity Development Mucous cells of the repiratory mucosea produce dense, fibrous mucous
Clogs airways
Bacterial infections
Prognosis poor (most don’t live to 20, almost none live past 30)
Affects pancreas, lungs, all secretions Cystic Fibrosis Abnormal form of fibrillin.
Widespread connective tissue defects
Abnormally long appendages
Cardiovascular distress (aortic rupture) Marfan syndrome Dizygotic (fraternal)
Monozygotic (identical)
Conjoined (Siamese) Multiple births Ectopic pregnancy
Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) Abnormalities with implantation -Central Nervous System
-Peripheral Nervous System
-Special Senses The Nervous System 20 Brain stem is made of 3 parts:
Respiration, relays messages within brain
Medulla Oblongata
Depth of breathing, BP, HR BRAIN STEM Consists of two hemispheres
Right cerebellar hemisphere
Left cerebellar hemisphere
Controls all skeletal muscle body functions:
Maintenance of balance
Maintenance of muscle tone
Coordination of muscle movement CEREBELLUM 15 Grey matter – made up of cell bodies, and capillaries
White matter – made up of cell axons (myelin sheath) CEREBRUM Coverings of the brain (meninges)
Dura mater – outer lining
Arachnoid mater – middle layer
Pia mater – inner lining

Space b/t arachnoid and pia matters filled with cerebrospinal fluid THE BRAIN THE BRAIN Membrane excitability is the electric charge created by impulses in the nerve.
Synapse - messages go from the axon of one cell to the dendrite of another cell.
Synaptic cleft - space between axon or one cell and dendrite of another.
The impulse must jump the cleft with the help of a neurotransmitter. Nerve Transmission continued… 8 Nervous tissue consists of two types of nerve cells:
Neurons - pass nerve impulses from one cell to the next
Sensory neurons (afferent)
Take messages to spinal cord and brain
Motor neurons (efferent)
Carry messages from spinal cord and brain
Associative neurons (interneurons)
Carry messages between neurons
Neuroglia - cells that insulate, support and protect neurons Components of CNS 5 There are 3 divisions of the nervous system:
Central nervous system - brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system - nerves of the body
Autonomic nervous system - peripheral nerves and ganglia to involuntary muscles and glands DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 2 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres; each hemisphere is divided into:
frontal lobe
Motor functions
Conscious thought
parietal lobe
Touch, pain, heat, cold
occipital lobe
temporal lobe
Auditory and olfactory CEREBRUM Acetylcholine – between nerve & muscle cells.
Norepinephrine Neurotransmitters 9 Axon is covered with insulation known as a Myelin Sheath.
Breaks in between sheath are called nodes of Ranvier 7 Specialized cells that make up the nervous system
Dendrites carry
messages to the cell
Axons carry
messages away from
The cell body NEURONS 6 4 Communication and coordination system of body
Receives messages from stimuli
Brain interprets message
Brain responds and carries out activity
Reasoning and intelligence Functions of CNS Brain Spinal
Cord Brain and Spinal Cord Central Nervous System 3 Continues from the brain, begins at the foramen magnum and continues to L2
Covered by meninges and bathed in Cerebrospinal fluid
The spinal cord functions as both a reflex center and a conduction pathway to and from the brain SPINAL CORD Corpus
Callosum The corpus callosum is the most important landmark in the brain. It is a bridge of axons that joins the two hemispheres and allows communication between them. 16 Thalamus
Located between the cerebrum and midbrain
Acts as a relay station for incoming and outgoing nerve impulses Hypothalamus
Autonomic nervous control – Para sympathetic, sympathetic Nervous system
Cardiovascular control BP, Pulse
Temperature control
Appetite control
Water balance
Manufacture of oxytocin
Gastrointestinal control – increases or decreases GI peristalsis and secretions
Emotional state
Sleep control DIENCEPHALON brain stem cerebrum 13 4 primary divisions
Brain Stem THE BRAIN Sensory (afferent) nerve - fibers carry impulses from sense organs to the brain or spinal cord
Motor (efferent) nerve - fibers carry impulses from brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands
*Mixed nerve - contains both sensory and motor fibers NERVES Includes all of the nerves of the body and ganglia
Connects the central nervous system to various body structures
Controls the involuntary (automatic) activities of vital internal organs
Acts as a reflex center of body PERIPHERAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM THE PERIPHERAL AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The spinal nerves originate at the spinal cord and go through openings in the vertebrae
All 31 pairs of spinal nerves are mixed nerves Spinal Nerves The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that begin in various areas of the brain
Designated by Roman numeral and name CRANIAL NERVES Autonomic NS There are two divisions:
Sympathetic system - consists of two cords of nerve fibers and ganglia extending from base of brain down through spinal column
Parasympathetic system
Vagus nerve - chest and neck
Pelvic nerve - hip region AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM Includes nerves, ganglia, and plexuses that carry impulses to all smooth muscle, secretory glands, and heart muscle
Regulates the activities of the visceral organs AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM Parasympathetic division Sympathetic division Autonomic Somatic Peripheral nervous system
Trigeminal neuralgia
Conserves bodily resources
Save and store energy
Slow heart rate
Reduce blood pressure
Promote digestion Sympathetic
Mobilizes body for emergencies
Slows digestive system
Drains blood from the periphery (lessens bleeding if injured)
Hormones released that ready the body for action Autonomic nervous system Carries info to and from the CNS. Nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors. Peripheral Nervous system Controls automatic, involuntary things (e.g., heart rate, digestion, respiration). Governed by the CNS, but is autonomous. Nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands. Peripheral Nervous system Sensory impulses from taste receptors in the tongue
Fibers of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
Medulla oblongata
Impulses ascend to the thalamus
Then are directed to the gustatory cortex in the parietal lobe of the cerebrum Taste Nerve Pathway Sense of Taste Partial or complete loss of smell
May result from a variety of factors including inflammation of the nasal cavity lining due to respiratory infection, tobacco smoke, or using certain drugs such as cocaine Anosmia Stimulated olfactory receptor cells send nerve impulses along their axons which form the first cranial nerves and synapse with neurons located in enlargements called olfactory bulbs.
Impulses are analyzed in the olfactory bulbs and travel along olfactory tracts to the limbic system
Major interpreting areas (olfactory cortex) for these impulses are located within the temporal lobes and at the bases of the frontal lobes Olfactory Nerve Pathways The human nose can detect about 10,000 different smells
A dog can detect about 10 times that many THE NOSE Hearing loss
Conductive hearing loss
Sensorineural damage Otitis media
Meniere’s disease EAR DISORDERS The Cochlea Connects the stapes to the middle ear wall
Contracts in response to loud sounds; known as the Acoustic Reflex Stapedius Muscle Lined with mucous membrane; connects middle ear to back of the throat (nasopharynx)
Equalizes air pressure Eustachian Tube THE EAR The outer ear
collects sound waves and directs them into auditory canal
The middle ear
equalizes air pressure
The inner ear
fluid-filled duct vibrates with sound waves THE EAR PATHWAY OF VISION THE EYE THE EYE Sclera - outer layer or white of eye
Cornea - center and front of sclera
Choroid coat - middle of the eye
Iris - colored, muscular part
Pupil - circular opening in iris
Lens - behind iris and pupil
Retina - innermost (third) coat THE EYE THE EYE Chemoreceptors
Thermoreceptors Somatic senses SPECIAL SENSES Locations of the four primary taste sensations. The tongue is a mass of muscle tissue with structures called papillae
Taste buds cover the papilla, which are stimulated by sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes THE TONGUE Rhinitis
Nasal polyps
Deviated nasal septum DISORDERS OF THE NOSE Humans smell using 12 million olfactory receptor cells
Bloodhounds have 4 billion olfactory receptor cells
Much better sense of smell.
Specially trained for search and rescue Cochlea - Snail-shaped organ with a series of fluid-filled tunnels; converts mechanical energy into electrical energy Structures of the Inner Ear A: Malleus
B: Incus
C: Stapes
Ossicles are smallest bones in the body
Transmit sound waves to inner ear The Ossicular Chain Auricle (Pinna)
Collects sound
Helps in sound localization
Most efficient in directing high frequency sounds to the eardrum Structures of the Outer Ear Vision defects
Strabismus Conjunctivitis
Macular degeneration
Detached retina
Eye injuries EYE DISORDERS 8th Cranial Nerve or “Auditory Nerve” carries signals from cochlea to brain
Fibers of the auditory nerve are present in the hair cells of the inner ear
Auditory Cortex: Temporal lobe of the brain where sound is perceived and analyzed Central Auditory System Consists of three semi-circular canals
Shares fluid with the cochlea
Controls balance Vestibular System (From Merck Manual) Thin membrane
Forms boundary between outer and middle ear
Vibrates in response to sound waves
Changes acoustical energy into mechanical energy Tympanic Membrane Screening tests for HIV/AIDS
There are two antibody tests
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - detects antibodies for AIDS but not the virus
Western blot is the follow-up to confirm ELISA results AIDS/HIV Acquired - disease is not inherited
Immune - body’s natural defenses
Deficiency - lacks cellular immunity
Syndrome - diagnosed from sets of diseases or conditions present AIDS/HIV Vaccines Immunity is the body’s ability to resist invaders and disease
Born with it, inherited, lasts a lifetime
Reaction as a result of exposure
Active – lasts a long time
Natural – Exposed to disease
Artificial – Vaccination/immunization
Passive – lasts a short time; produces immed. immunity
Natural – from mother’s milk/placenta
Artificial – Serum, immunoglobin, antitoxin IMMUNITY Lymph nodes provide sites for lymphocyte production and screen harmful substances from the lymph
Bacteria and other harmful substances in large quantities may injure the lymph node
Adenitis - swelling in lymph gland LYMPH NODES Lymph fluid acts as intermediary between blood, capillaries, and tissues
Lymph vessels transport tissue fluid back into circulatory system
Lymph nodes produce lymphocytes and filter harmful bacteria
Spleen produces lymphocytes and monocytes, acts as a reservoir for blood, and recycles red blood cells
Thymus gland produces T-lymphocytes for immune system FUNCTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy.html TED Talks There is no cure for AIDS yet certain drugs are used to slow the virus
Transmission is prevented by following the CDC’s Standard Precautions AIDS/HIV Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
Flu-like symptoms
Enlarged lymph glands AIDS/HIV Transmission of AIDS
Sexual contact with infected partner
Sharing hypodermic needles among IV drug users
In utero or at birth of infected mother
Transfusion of blood AIDS/HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys T4-lymphocyte cells without causing symptoms
Opportunistic infections arise
Three outcomes of HIV infection:
AIDS-related complex (ARC)
Asymptomatic infection AIDS/HIV Lymphadenitis - enlargement of the lymph nodes that occurs when infection is present
Hodgkin’s disease - form of cancer of lymph nodes
Infectious mononucleosis - caused by Epstein-Barr virus DISORDERS OF THE
LYMPH SYSTEM Hypersensitivity
Overreaction to harmless foreign substance
Antibodies irritate certain body cells
Allergen - antigen causes allergic responses
Anaphylactic shock - severe, often fatal allergic reaction IMMUNITY Autoimmunity
Occurs when a person’s own immune system targets normal cells, tissues, and organs of person’s own body
Causes range from genetics to viruses to sunlight exposure
Lupus IMMUNITY http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/vaccines/view/ The Vaccine War The spleen is a saclike mass of lymphatic tissue that forms lymphocytes and monocytes
The spleen filters blood that passes through it, destroying old or fragile red blood cells
The spleen stores large amounts of red blood cells SPLEEN LYMPH NODES 2 large main lymphatics
Thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)
Receives lymph from left side of head, neck, abdominal area, and lower limbs
Right lymphatic duct
Circulates lymph from right arm, right side of head, and upper trunk to the superior vena cava LYMPH VESSELS Similar to blood plasma
Lymph diffuses from capillaries into tissue spaces
Lymph acts as an intermediary between blood in capillaries and tissues
Lymph carries digested food, oxygen, and hormones to cells
Also contains water, lymphocytes, some granulocytes
Does not contain RBC LYMPH Our Immune System The cells of the immune system The thymus’s function (in the lymphatic system) is to produce lymphocytes called T-lymphocytes
The thymus is also an endocrine gland because it secretes a hormone called thymosin that stimulates the production of lymphoid cells THYMUS GLAND Tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissues capable of producing lymphocytes and filtering bacteria
Three pairs of tonsils
Lingual TONSILS Lymph vessels accompany and are similar to veins
They are in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vessels
Lymph only travels in one direction: from body organs to the heart
Returns to organs through arteries
Lymph vessels Lymphatic ducts LYMPH VESSELS (pg 162 MT) Be CLEAN!!! In short Gloves: clean, non-sterile, change OFTEN
Mask, Eye Protection, Face Shield: splashables and sprays – protects mucous membranes
Gown: remove when soiled to prevent spreading
Client Care Equipment: they get soiled, change, sterilize
Linens: handle and transport with care. Use gloves
Never re-cap needles, always dispose in sharps containers. REPORT STICKS!
Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, etc.
Isolate contamination risks
Reverse isolation to prevent patients from infecting themselves (burn patients, etc.) Standard Precautions Hand washing:
Wash hands after touching anything, regardless of glove presence
Use plain soap for hand washing
Wash hands for a minimum or 20 seconds Standard Precautions Incubation: time interval between entry and the onset of symptoms
Prodromal Stage – the time interval from the onset of non-specific symptoms until specific symptoms begin to appear (I.e. – fever)
Illness – the time period when the client is manifesting actual symptoms
Convalescent state – the period of time from the beiginning to the disappearance of acute symptoms Stages of the Infectious Process B cells – can clone themselves to make plasma cells and memory cells
Plasma Cells – secrete huge quantities of antibodies
Helper T cells – stimulate the production of killer t cells and more B cells, make lymphokines
Killer T cells – kill virus-invaded body cells and cancerous cells and are involved in graft rejection Specific Immune Defense BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between portal of entry and host
Maintain skin integrity
Use sterile techniques Between agent and reservoir:
Cleanse: cold water, detergent, warm water, dry
Disinfection: elimination of agents from inanimate objects by chemicals
Sterilize: total elimination – autoclaving, boiling, UV light, etc. *Not all organisms can be “killed” BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Host: is a simple or complex organism that can be affected by an agent
Susceptible host – a person who lacks resistance and is vulnerable (young and elderly)
Compromised host – a person whose normal defense mechanisms are impaired (HIV/AIDS) Chain of Infection, continued Agent: the entity that is capable of causing disease
Biological (bacteria, viruses, etc)
Chemical (medications, industrial chemicals, pesticides)
Physical (heat, noise, light, radiation) Chain of Infection, continued Need iron, food, good pH, moisture
Some are spore-formers
Trigger very high fevers
Treatable with ANTIBIOTICS when in the body
Treatable with ANTIBACTERIALS when outside the body
Illnesses associated with bacterial infections:
Urinary tract infections
gonorrhea Bacteria - Continued Clostridium difficile AKA “C diff”
Antibiotics course
Antibiotics course
Probiotics??? Disruption of Normal Flora Use of bacteria, viruses, or germs to cause illness and spread fear

Example: anthrax
Table 16-3 for your information Bioterrorism Suppressor T cells – suppress the activities of B and T cells
Memory cells – hang around to remember old foes
Macrophages – phagocytize invaders and do antigen presentation
Lymphokines – chemicals that act as chemical signals to tell the immune system how to function. Specific Immune Defense Defenses against all invaders:
Normal flora
Mucous membranes
Elimination and acidic environments
Inflammation Non-specific Immune disease BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Host and Agent
Proper nutrition
Isolation BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between Mode of Transmission and Portal of Entry
Wash your hands
Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) PROPERLY BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between portal of exit and mode of transmission block the exit
Cover your mouth when sneezing (NOT WITH YOUR HANDS!)
Gloves – proper usage
Don’t prance around ill Age
Concurrent disease
Immunization/vaccination status
Nutritional status
Heredity Factors to consider for host infections Portal of Entry: the route by which an infectious agent enters the host
The integumentary system
Respiratory tract
Genitoruinary tract
GI tract
Circulatory system
Transplacental Chain of Infection, continued Mode of Transmission: The process that bridges the gap between the portal of exit and the NEW host
Contact transmission: physical touch:(think, STDs)
Airborne transmission: droplets or dust particles are suspended in the air: for example, spores of anthrax
Vehicle Transmission: contaminated inanimate objects such as water, meat, food, blood
Vectorborne transmission: an animate non person spreads the disease (think, ticks) Chain of Infection, continued Chain of Infection Bacteria-small, one-celled microorganisms that have no true nucleus
Viruses – obligate intracellular organism made of protein and nucleic acid
Fungi – microscopic plant-like organisms
Protozoa – single celled parasitic organisms that can move around
Rickettsia – intercellular parasites that need to be in living cells to reproduce (spread by ticks)
Helminths – parasitic worms (pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms) Meet the Bugs Pathogenicity – the ability of the bug to produce disease
Virulence – the frequency with which the bug WILL cause disease
Factors influencing virulence:
Ability to adhere to cells
Ability to damage cells
Ability to evade or destroy immune function Pathogenicity and Virulence Flora: microorganisms that occur or have adapted to live in a specific environment such as the intestine, gut, vagina, or oral cavity.
Transient flora
Occur in periods of limited duration
Resident flora
Important for our health
Prevent disease Flora Flora
Pathogenicity and Virulence (the bugs)
Chain of Infection
Breaking the Chain of Infection
Normal Defense Mechanisms
Stages of Infectious Process
Nosocomial Infections (healthcare facility acquired)
Standard Precautions and Isolation Overview Clostridium difficile
Staphylococcus aureus

These are infections acquired in a hospital or other health care facility that was not present at admission. Nosocomial Infections Portal of Exit: the route by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir to be transferred to a susceptible host.
Examples are sputum, semen, vaginal secretions, urine, saliva, feces, blood, and draining wounds (pus) Chain of Infection, continued Reservoir: the place where the agent can survive.
Most common reservoirs are
Fomites (objects contaminated, dressings, instruments) Chain of Infection, continued Parasitic worms
Pinworms and tapeworms are the most common
Acquired by eating undercooked meat Helminths ~150 cases per year in NC Intercellular parasite
Must be in a living cell to reproduce
Spread by fleas, ticks, mites, and lice
Common illnesses:
Lyme disease
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Typhus Rickettsia Giardia Infection is spread through food, water, insect bites
Common infections:
Vaginal infections
Most prefer dead or decaying
organic matter
NOTE:(YOU ARE ORGANIC MATTER!!!) Protozoa Diseases are referred to as mycoses
Found mainly in the immunologically challenged
Mucous membranes

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) Fungi -Hijack your cells to make more
-May possess an envelope that protects from the immune system
-Often never leave the cell
-CANNOT be treated with Antibiotics
-Common diseases:
Genital Herpes
West Nile Virus
Diarrhea Viruses (or, how to keep yourself healthy and alive.) Infection Control and standard precautions BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between Reservoir and Portal of Exit:
Good hygiene by health workers
Clean dressings
Clean linens
Clean equipment (wear gloves!) Bacteria
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