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Chapter 1

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Hayden McWhorter

on 16 May 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 1

Chapter 1
What is theory?
THEORY explains some phenomena in a systematic way.

THEORY provides a guiding framework for understanding and predicting behavior in organizations.

THEORY enables one to predict what should be observable, especially when the data is not yet collected.
Theory and Research are Connected
Theory provides the researcher with what to look for (seeing).
The research provides the researcher with what was found (understanding).
What was found provides the researcher with what to look for in the future (verifying).
This process of
, and
is accomplished through the scientific method.
Scientific Method:
Methods of Research
Laboratory Studies
Field Studies
Survey studies
Case studies
What are the uses of theory?
Identifying relevant phenomena
Classifying phenomena
Formulating constructs
Summarizing phenomena
Predicting phenomena.
Revealing needed research.
Development of Administrative Thought
Four Eras:
Educational Administration:
An Area of Study
Emerged since the 1950's around the concepts of organizations and leadership.
The important issue is for leaders to know organizational theory as a strong theoretical base (
Doctoral theses based on such theories
Theories provide a guiding framework for understanding, predicting, and controlling behavior in organizations (like teachers in classrooms learn about learning theory)
Development of Administrative Theory
1. Research Problem
2. Hypothesis (RQs)
3. Data Collection
4. Data Analysis
5. Findings/Interpretations.
1. Classical Organizational Theory
2. Human Relations Approach
3. Behavioral Science Approach
4. Post-Behavioral Science Era
Classical Organizational Theory
Emphasis on efficiency and task

The machine

The goal: maximize productivity

Newtonian worldview
Scientific Management

-Founder: Frederick Taylor, early 1900's

-Premise: Identify most efficient means to perform a task

1. Scientific Job Analysis of Job Task
2. Selection of Personnel and Training
3. Management Cooperation with Workers
4. Division of Workers and Managers

Principles of Management
Bureaucracy: Max Weber

Principles of Management: Henri Fayol
-Managers perform six basic functions:
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling, and budgeting.

POSDCORB: Luther Gulick
Human Relations Approach
Hawthorne Studies conducted at Western Electric, Elton Mayo, 1930's Hawthorne Effect.

Human-social element operated in the workplace

Increase in productivity related to an outgrowth of group dynamics

Morale, belongingness, effective management

Important to understand human/group behavior.
Human Relations Approach
Major assumptions of human relations
democratic leadership

Employees motivated by social, psychological, and economic needs

Employee morale and productivity linked to recognition, belongingness, security, and supportive management

Employees form informal social organizations, with norms and codes of behavior
Human Relations Approach

Kurt Lewin
(authoritarian, laissez-faire, democratic groups)

Carl Rogers
(client-centered therapy)

Jacob Moreno
(group affinities)

George Homans
(theory of groups)
Behavioral Science Approach
FOCUS: Individual and relating to organization

Cooperative systems
Behavioral Science Approach
Post-Behavioral Science Era
Efficiency/Effectiveness (Chester Barnard)
Fusion Process (E. Wight Bakke)
Individual/Organizational Conflict (Chris Argyris)
Nomothetic/Idiographic (Getzels and Guba)
Need Hierarchy (Abraham Maslow)
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)
Hygiene-Motivation (Frederick Herzberg)
Systems 1-4 (Rensis Likert)
Managerial Grid (Blake and Morton)
Contingency Theory (Fred Fiedler)
Situational Leadership (Hersey & Blanchard)
School Improvement
Clarifying Purpose
Encouraging Collective Learning
Aligning with State Standards
Providing Support
Making Data-Driven Decisions
Democratic Community
Critical Thinking
Social Justice
Excellence and Equity
Emergent Perspectives
Subjectivist/Interpretivist approaches

Ethics and values

Gender, race/ethnicity, class

Critical theory and postmodernism
Schools as Open Systems

Transformation Process



The Learning Organization
Peter Senge

The Fifth Discipline

1. Systems Thinking
2. Personal Mastery
3. Shared Vision
4. Team Learning
5. Mental Models
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