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AG 3

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by

Augusto Casablanca

on 23 January 2017

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Transcript of AG 3

GERUNDS
GERUND AS A
SUBJECT
GERUND AS AN
OBJECT
GERUND AS A
SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
GERUND AS AN
OBJECT COMPLEMENT
GERUND AS AN
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
Going to the movies

is
my hobby.
Doing

yoga

makes
me relax.
Practicing your English

shows
commitment.
Shaking hands

is
a formal greeting in Peru.
Not working hard

will make
him poor.
(GERUND BEFORE THE VERB)
(GERUND AFTER THE VERB)
(GERUND AFTER THE VERB BE)
Be careful!
Progressive tenses are not gerunds!
(GERUND AFTER AN OBJECT OR OBJECT PRONOUN)
(GERUND AFTER A PREPOSITION)
I really
love

eating
pizza.
Marita
enjoys

practicing
extreme sports.
This weekend, he will
go

surfing
.
I'm sick. I
can't stop

sneezing
.
We should
avoid

speaking
Spanish.
See Appendix 12!
My favorite activity
is

playing
cards.
His goal
is

getting
a scholarship.
My worst nightmare
is

getting
married.
Her passion
is

working
with children.
His problem
is

not trusting
his wife.
I
left

him

doing
his homework.
She
saw

John

cheating
on Jane.
I
spend

my free time

writing
a book.
Andres
has

trouble

understanding
.
Tobias
found

his sister

reading
his diary.
Don't you think
about

studying
abroad?
She is looking forward
to

going
out on Sunday.
I'm used
to

not doing
my homework.
Don't insist
on

coming
. We don't want you here.
What are her motives
for

not attending
class?
SIMPLE
AND
PAST
GERUNDS
*
Eating
pizza is great.
*
Having eaten
pizza
made
our day awesome.
(It's a generalization.)
(It emphasizes the difference in time.)
ACTIVE
AND
PASSIVE
GERUNDS
Do you like
being shown
how to prepare a dish or
reading
a recipe on the Internet?

Are you more interested in
cleaning
your house in silence or
being accompanied
by music?

Do you prefer
doing
homework on your own or
being helped
by someone?
INFINITIVES
INFINITIVE AS A
SUBJECT
INFINITIVE AS AN
OBJECT
INFINITIVE AS A
SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
(INFINITIVE BEFORE THE VERB)
(INFINITIVE AFTER THE VERB)
(INFINITIVE AFTER THE VERB BE)
To sleep late
may cause you lot of problems.
To See you happy makes me happy.
To get a cold in the summer is terrible.
It may cause you a lot of problems to sleep late.
It makes me happy to see you happy.
It is terrible to get a cold in the summer.
VERY FORMAL
MORE COMMON
IT IS
+

ADJECTIVE

+
FOR / OF
+

NOUN / PRONOUN

+

INFINITIVE PHRASE
It's important for you to review this information.
It's common for students to study before an exam.
It was stupid of you to do such a thing.
It is nice of you to say that.
People may
choose

to buy
a larger house.
You can
expect

to have
a longer commute.
I
would like

to go
to the zoo.
See appendix 13!
Your goal
is

to make
the best investment possible.
Their dream
was

to have
a big kitchen.
My objective
is

to pass
this class with a good score.
INFINITIVES FOLLOWING
ADJECTIVES
They were
ready

to buy
the house.
It will be
necessary

to check
my notes.
Anna is
sorry

to be
late.
Afraid, amazed, excited, fortunate, glad, happy, important, likely, necessary, proud, reluctant, sorry, willing, etc.
You may
prefer

to invest
in a bigger lot.
You may
prefer

investing
in a bigger lot.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES WITH
NO CHANGE
IN MEANING
Begin, can't stand, continue, hate, like, love prefer, start, etc.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES WITH
CHANGE
IN MEANING
Don't
forget

to talk
to the neighbors.
Don't
forget

talking
to the neighbors.
Forget, go on, quit, regret, stop, try, remember, etc.
SENTENCE ADVERBS, FOCUS ADVERBS AND NEGATIVE ADVERBS
NEGATIVE ADVERBS
(Rarely, hardly, never, seldom, neither, in no way, not only)
* I
have

never

seen
such a beautiful island.
*
Never

have
I
seen
such a beautiful island.
* This class
rarely

finishes
on time.
*
Rarely

does
this class
finish
on time.
SENTENCE ADVERBS
(Clearly, totally, certainly, basically, actually, definitely, essentially, fortunately, hopefully, obviously, possibly, surely, maybe, perhaps, etc)
THEY EXPRESS POINTS OF VIEW!
Certainly,
she is a bad person.
She
is

certainly
a bad person.
She is a bad person
, certainly
.
Obviously,
she cheated on him.
She
obviously

cheated
on him.
She cheated on him
, obviously
.
FOCUS ADVERBS
1* This movie will never end.
2* She hardly ate while she was there.
3* I seldom practice sports.
4* Andy rarely speaks English in class.
5* You have never seen a ghost.
6* She didn't visit her mom not once.
7* Brad seldom does his homework.
*That class is boring.
(definitely)
*She will pass this course.
(hopefully)
*I hate all kinds of seafood.
(basically)
*We disagree with that statement.
(actually)
*There is more corruption in the government now.
(certainly)
*The cure for AIDS can be discovered soon.
(perhaps)

(even, only, just, almost, etc)
They precede the word they focus on!
* I
even

did
my homework.
*
Even

I
did my homework.
* She
only

cleaned
her room.
*
Only

she
cleaned her room.
*
Just

children
can play here.
* Children can
just

play
here.
* I didn't finish my homework, but nobody else did. _____ the most responsible student in my class _____ didn't do it.
(even)

* Many students failed the final exam. _____ 40 % of the students ______ had to repeat the course. Fortunately, my friend and I were not in that group and we passed.
(almost)

* Today I have a party at night. I thought I was not going to be given permission to go, but my mom told me that if I wanted to go, ____ I ____ had to clean my room.
(only)
Read the situations carefully and decide where to place the adverb in parenthesis. Only one position is possible.
3. ______ it's sunny will we go to the beach.
5. ______ you tell me truth, I won't help you. (if you want me to help you, tell me the truth.)
4. ______ you tell me truth, I won't help you. (It doesn't matter if you tell me the truth.. I won't help you.)
6. You will feel better ______ you stop eating junk food.
1. You won't pass ______ you study. (you will fail anyways.)
2. You won't pass ______ you study. (if you want to pass, study!)
Adverb Clauses
Are these
independent
or
dependent
clauses?
5. they're going on a picnic

6. mom found it on the table

7. the little kids sang

8. when the movie is over
1. when Mr. Jones yelled

2. I enjoy basketball

3. unless it comes today

4. after I lost the library book
Dependent
After
I work
,
I relax.
I relax after I work.
When
the sun comes out
,
we go to the beach.
We go to the beach when the sun comes out.
Identify the dependent clause.
Adverb clauses
They are
dependent clauses
because they depend on the
main clause
to make sense.
(how, when, where, why, conditions, contrast)
subordinating conjunctions
after
since
anywhere
now that
unless
even though
+
dependent
clauses
(will)
I get married after I graduate.
After I graduate, I
will
get married.
She call you once she finishes her HW.
For future time:
(is going to)
Once she finishes her HW, she
's going to
call you.
Only if
Only if you follow my advice

succeed.
You
will
succeed only if you follow my advice.
I
will
go only if you pay for my food.
Only if you pay for my food

go.
^
^
will
you
will
I
Condition
Even if
Unless
I won't go
even if
he invites me.
She will be late tomorrow
even if
she sleeps early.
Even if
he invites me, I won't go.

Even if
she sleeps early, she will be late tomorrow.
She will find it
unless
you hide it in your room.
You won't watch TV
unless
you finish your hw.
Unless
you hide it in your room, she will find it.
Unless
you finish your hm, you won't watch TV.
if... not
You won't watch TV
if

you

don't
finish your hw.
She will find it
if

you

don't
hide it in your room.
Complete with only if - even if - unless
even if
Dependent
Dependent
Dependent
Independent
Independent
Independent
Independent
ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME
(Before, after, while, when, whenever, once, by the time, as, as soon as, since, until, till, etc)
*
Before
she arrived
,
I cleaned the room.
*
After
I play soccer
,
I always drink a lot of water.
*She cries
whenever
she watches sad movies.
*Anna met Jose
as soon as
the class was over.
*The independent clause (main clause) is in future tense. The dependent clause (adverb clause) is in present tense.
unless
Only if
Even if
Unless
Only if
As he saw the guns, he chose to flee.


Because I arrived late, I missed the show.


Since he hadn't done his HW, he was punished.
Adverb and Adverbial Phrases
Before I returned, I visited Machu Picchu.
Before
returning
, I visited Machu Picchu.
Clause:
Phrase:
Subject
Verb
From a Clause to a Phrase
While I was eating, I watched TV.




She checked her e-mail while she was playing.




I called my mom while I was inside.
While playing, she checked her e-mail.
While ,
eating
playing.
After - Before - Since - While
Before we left, we had breakfast.


After they investigated, they identified the killers.


Since I moved to Lima, I've always visited my mother.
Since
to Lima, I've always visited my mother.
Before
, we had breakfast.
After
, they identified the killers.
leaving
investigating
moving
Before I ate my dessert, I finished the soup.



After we had done our HW, we went out.
Simple Past
Past Perfect
Before
After
having done
eating
When
(right after) turns into
Upon / On

When I saw her, I smiled.
Upon
On
seeing her,
When she finished, she felt good.
Upon
On
finishing,

the guns, he chose to flee.
late, I missed the show.
Arriving
his HW, he was punished.
Not
Seeing
I called my mom while
Only if you
start
with the
adverb
can you
omit
it.
having done
Remember!
Can the sentence be
shortened
if the
subjects
are
different
?
While
Rose
was listening to music,
I
was doing my homework.
While
listening
to music,
I
was doing my homework.
Do they have the same meaning?
BE
we omit:
I watched Tv while eating.
She checked her e-mail while
While inside, I called my mom.
subject
omit:
While I was traveling alone, I ate a salad.



When she was talking to me, she received the money .
Talking
to me, she received the money.
While traveling
alone, I ate a salad.
Traveling
alone, I ate a salad.
When talking
to me, she received the money.
I watched Tv.
inside.
the
Subject
And the verb goes:
ing
our HW,
we went out.
my dessert,
I finished the soup.
we understand which happened first so....
Having + past participle
is optional.
Having +
past participle
I smiled.
she felt good.
1. After we didn't go to the party, we were never invited again.

2. While my mom cleaned the house, she found my cell phone.

3. When Alex reached 3 years working, he decided to change jobs.

4. Before you take out your books, you have to finish the exercises.

5. I went to the house while I was singing.

6. They ate everything they could have after they saw the banquet.
(While)
cleaning
the house, she found my cell phone.
They ate everything they could have

after
seeing
the banquet.
I went to the house

(while)
singing.
Before
taking out
your books, you have to finish the exercises.
After
not going
to the party, we were never invited again.
On
/
upon
reaching
3 years working, he decided to change jobs.
Since
I didn't study, I failed the exam. =(
I failed the exam
because
I didn't study. =(
Not studying,
I failed the exam. =(
not studying. =(
I failed the exam
* To reduce an
ADVERB CLAUSE
that has the verb BE in it into an
ADVERB PHRASE
, we...
* To reduce an
ADVERB CLAUSE OF TIME
into an
ADVERB PHRASE
, we...
Clauses with
While and when
(at the same time) can turn into
adverb phrases and adverbial phrases
(Adverb Phrase)
(Adverbial Phrase)
(Adverb Phrase)
(Adverbial Phrase)
* To reduce an
ADVERB CLAUSE OF REASON
into an
ADVERBIAL PHRASE
, we...
ADVERB
(because, since, as, etc.)

subject
omit:
And the verb goes:
ing
What's the difference between a clause and a phrase?
CONNECTORS
Coordinating Conjunctions
(Also known as: "Coordinators")
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
or
o
et
r
ut
or
nd
He’s rich
, for
he worked very hard.
He’s famous
,

so
he's rich.
He’s poor
, but
he’s happy.
Effect / Result
Cause / Reason
Contrast
Condition
Addition
so
for
but, or, yet
or
or, and, nor
?
NOR
(negative addition)
AND
(affirmative addition)
I need a book
, AND
she needs a pen.
I
DON'T
need a book
, NOR
does she need a pen.
Subordinating Conjunctions
*Condition:

*Contrast:

*Cause / Reason:

*Time:
as, because, since
after, before, when, while
if, even if, only if, unless
although, though, even though, whereas, while
Transitions
*Addition:

*Condition:

*Contrast:

*Effect / Result:

*Time:
besides, furthermore, indeed, in addition, moreover
consequently, otherwise, therefore, thus
I need to eat healthy. I won't have energy.
(otherwise)
I need to eat healthy


.
,
Otherwise
I need to eat healthy


,
otherwise
I need to eat healthy .
,
otherwise
;
,
,
Clause
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
I won't have energy.
have energy.
When
I arrived home
,
I took a shower.
If the
subordinate clause
comes
first
,
it is followed by a
comma
.
They connect clauses in a sentence
RULES OF PUNCTUATION
clause.
* My mom didn't want to go to the store, did she want to get out of bed.
* She isn't tall, does she care about it.
* He went to the party without permission, now he's grounded.
* This isn't the first time we've done this, will it be the last.
*Learning a language requires dedication, it costs a lot of money.
*Employers don't want employees who can't solve problems, do they want employees who are lazy.
* I don't smoke, do I drink alcohol.

Pay attention to the inversion!
nor
nor
nor
nor
nor
and
and
(Also known as "Subordinators")
RULES OF PUNCTUATION
I took a shower
when
I arrived home.
afterwards, meanwhile, next
however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand
otherwise
RULES OF PUNCTUATION
.
I won't
I won't have energy
.
They connect two sentences.
* I hate the summer. I hate everything.
(indeed)



* Shereen wants to go to the party. She won't go.
(however)



* It's late. I will go home now.
(therefore)



* You're working individually. I'll check the hw.
(meanwhile)

I hate the summer.
Indeed
, I hate everything.
I hate the summer. I,
indeed
, hate everything.
I hate the summer. I hate everything,
indeed
.
Shereen wants to go to the party.
However
, she won't go.
Shereen wants to go to the party. She won't go,
however
.
Shereen wants to go to the party. She won't,
however
, go.
It's late.
Therefore
, I will go home now.
It's late. I will,
therefore
, go home now.
It's late. I will go home now,
therefore
.
You're working individually.
Meanwhile
, I'll check the hw.
You're working individually. I'll,
meanwhile
, check the hw.
You're working individually. I'll check the hw,
meanwhile
.
AG3
Review before the Quiz
While
I was eating my dinner, I was watching Tv.
While

eating
my dinner, I was watching Tv.
Eating
my dinner, I was watching Tv.
Adverb Clause
Adverb Phrase
Adverbial Phrase
*Write a sentence containing an adverb phrase of time:
*Write a sentence containing an adverbial phrase of reason:
After going to Peru, she went to Chile.

*Write a sentence containing an adverb phrase of time:
I will watch a movie before sleeping.
While doing my homework, I always listen to music.
Since attending classes at Icpna, I've perfected my English.
Upon arriving, she told him what she had seen on the street.
We went for a coffee after studying.
Not doing my homework, I got a zero.
Wanting to pass the exam, Anna studied hard.
*Write a sentence containing an adverbial phrase of reason:
Scared by the loud noise, I didn't go to investigate.
After being given the chance, I told her about my feelings.
Hating summer, I always try to travel to cold places.
Feeling sick, Adrian skipped classes today.
Offended, I left the place.
Full transcript