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Gibb’s TORI Theory

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Angela Hsieh

on 16 December 2014

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Transcript of Gibb’s TORI Theory

Gibb's TORI Theory
of Trust Formation

Tying it all Together
Self-Diagnostic Scale
How to Reduce Fear
1. Create and communicate a safe atmosphere

2. Encourage members to voice their fears

3. Help members recognize that they are not alone

4. Encourage the development of maintenance roles

5. Nurture the development of spontaneity

the SKAB Connection
By the end of this workshop, you will be able to:
1. Recognize the 4 factors to keep in mind when fostering a creative, effective group environment

2. Identify reasons why your group might be "stuck"

3. Apply practical strategies to promote trust-building in your group
Interpretation of Results
A person who scores high on these sets is saying...
Self: “As a member of this group, I trust myself, have a well-formed sense of uniqueness and being, and I feel good about myself as a person”.

Group: “I trust the group, see the group climate as trusting and a good environment for me and other members”.

Self: “As a member, I feel free to be myself in this group. I can show who I am and express feelings and attitudes with little pressure or cover up”.

Group: “I see the group as open and spontaneous and I see the members as willing to show themselves”.

Self: “As a member of this group, I feel free to take risks, assert myself, do anything I want to do, and to follow intrinsic motivations”.

Group: “I see the group as allowing freedom for being unique and as creating a good environment for the directing energy toward intrinsic goals”.

Self: “As a member I feel free, I have a strong sense of belonging, enjoy working with, helping and meeting the other group members”.

Group: “I see the group as a smoothly functioning unit, well integrated on several levels, and working efficiently and cooperatively”.

Our Results
Early Development ---------------> Later Development
Key Concern is Acceptance
High Trust Assumptions
Trouble at Boutique SKAB
What did you notice about this group’s data flow?

Signs of Closed Data Flow
- Covering up of feelings
- Hoarding relevant information, opinions, and perceptions
- Extremely slow or rapid decision-making
- Assumptions get turned into facts
- Gossip, grapevine and washroom interchanges

Signs of Open Data Flow
- Participation and consensual decision-making
- Freely and spontaneously expressing opinions and being clear about how you feel
- Tolerance of deviations
- Increased data available for problem-solving
- People are heard and feedback is used to modify plans
- Real problems and issues are dealt with openly and directly
- Conflict recognized and dealt with creatively
It's all connected!
In order to form goals in the group
, you need this healthy, spontaneous exchange of information.

In order to have this open exchange of information, you need to trust yourself and your group

"Speak Up!" - Self- Advocacy Worksheet

Realisation/Goal Formation is the third modal concern in Gibb’s Model of group development.

Follows Trust and Openness, precedes Interdependency, TORI

Behaviours: Assertion, exploration, evolution, wanting

Group issues at this stage: control, organization motivation & needs

Evolves into actions & sequence
Realisation - Goal Formation
Realisation - Goal Formation
The goal formation mode of TORI concerns teamwork and motivation

The group moves from mistrust/fear to trust, competition leads to participation and collaboration.

It is also characterised by wanting help/advice and giving advice soliciting opinions, and risk taking. All dependent on TRUST.

Realisation - Goal Formation
Movie Clip
1. Why do you think I showed this film today?
2. What did you observe?
3. What did you notice about the mood of the soldiers?
4. Can you connect this clip with group work?
5. What lesson can we learn from this clip?
Self-acceptance is most essential in laying a trusting environment in groups .

Only when we trust ourselves, can we begin to make 'trust assumptions' about others.

The higher the level of trust, the more creative, and effective the group will be.

When there is a high level of trust, we are free to be ourselves and we can see the goodness in ourselves and in others.
"The person who dares to entrust himself to others goes far in creating a climate of trust in the group"

-Jack Gibb
"Being with Others"
-This dimension is related to the
modal concern

dimension relates to: behaviour of group members, formation of roles and expectancies, and integration of function into the structure of a group.

-This concern is related to group
organizational structures
that can be developed into stable, trusting, flexible forms of interdependence.

-Growth on this dimension is contingent upon growth in each of the other dimensions.

-Stable and functional organizational structure is possible only as goals have been achieved.

-Mutual trust is essential in this model.

-In a successful group, members must learn to share tasks.

-Members must not force others to do as they wish, decision should be made freely.

Social Control Under Conditions of Low Trust
Formal rules of debate
Impersonal basis
Persuasive methods of controlling and manipulating the process
Preoccupation with boundary setting
Setting external rewards in the form of competition
Advice giving and power struggles
Social Control Under Conditions of High Trust
Functional interdependence in role distribution and action planning
Marked interchangeability of critical roles
Power structure becomes relatively open and participative
Distribution of tasks
Problem-solving arises spontaneously in response to needs
Marked increase in interdependence and cooperation
Contrapuntal Need System
Members of a group are influenced by two contrapuntal needs- growth needs vs. defense needs. In this dimension these are Freedom (to give and receive interdependence, flexibility, and freedom) and Control (to give and receive tight controls and sanctions, to be dominant, demanding, or aggressively independent.
Key Features of Gibb's Theory
1. Not a stage theory

2. Movement occurs concurrently and interdependently

3. No termination phase

4. Contrapuntal needs system

5. Mistrust-fear cycle

6. Trust paradox

7. Group growth is dependent on growth of individual

Key Features of Gibb's Theory
Not a Stage Theory!
"These four factors are processed throughout the life of the group and continually flow together and build on each other." (Dimock, 1987, p. 76)
Contrapuntal Needs System
Growth vs. Defense
Contrapuntal Needs System
"...some withdrawal in approach, some hostility in affection, some manipulation in sharing and some deception in openness" (Gibb, 1968)
Discussion Questions
Did your group feel any anxiety about the preparation of your presentation? Explain.
Did your group have a leader? Was this effective?
What was the high point of your task group?
What was the low point?
Have you realised your initial goal?
Was group trust ever an issue?
Was the group open to one another's ideas?
How was group exploration around the task? Explain.
How was the task distributed among the members?
Are you satisfied with the result of group work?
Signs of Closed Data Flow (Cont.)
- Artificial politeness
- Denial of feelings
- Showing great concern over hurting others' feelings
- "Weather talk"
- Caution in risk-taking
In a Parallel Universe...
- Trouble at Boutique SKAB - Take Two!

- Has anyone ever experienced similar communication problems their workplace?
What differences did you notice?
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