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Adjectives and Adverbs

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by

Michele Robbins

on 1 September 2015

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Transcript of Adjectives and Adverbs

Definitions

An
adjective
is a word or set of words that modifies (i.e., describes) a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may come before the word they modify.

Examples:
That is a
cute
puppy.
She likes a
high school
senior.

Adjectives may also follow the word they modify:

Examples:
That puppy looks
cute
.
The technology is
state-of-the-art.
Many
adverbs
end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have -ly added to its adjective form, place it there to form an adverb.

Examples
:
He thinks quick/
quickly
.
How
does he think?
Quickly
.

She is a
quick
/quickly thinker.
Quick
is an
adjective
describing thinker, so no -ly is attached.

She thinks
fast
/fastly.
Fast
answers the question
how
, so it is an
adverb
. But fast never has -ly attached to it.

We performed bad/
badly
.
Badly
describes
how
we performed, so -ly is added.
The word
good
is an
adjective
, whose
adverb
equivalent is
well
.

Examples
:
You did a
good
job.
Good
describes the
job
. (
job
is a noun)

You did the job
well
.
Well
answers
how
. (and modifies the verb
did
)

You
smell
good today.
Good
describes your
fragrance
, not how you smell with your nose, so using the adjective is correct.

You
smell
well for someone with a cold.
You are
actively

smelling
with your nose here,
so use the
adverb
.
The word
cleverest
is what is called the
superlative form
of
clever
. Use it only when
comparing three or more things.(thing = noun)

Example
: She is the
cleverest
of them all.

Incorrect
: Chocolate or vanilla: which do you like
best
?

Correct
: Chocolate or vanilla: which do you like
better
?
An
adverb
is a word or set of words that
modifies
verbs
,
adjectives
, or
other adverbs
.

Examples:
He speaks
slowly
.
(modifies the verb speaks)
He is
especially
clever. (modifies the adjective clever)
He speaks
all

too
slowly
.
(modifies the adverb slowly)

An adverb answers
how
,
when
,
where
, or
to what extent

how often
or
how much
(e.g., daily, completely).
The word
well
can be an
adjective
, too. When referring to
health
, we often use
well
rather than
good
.

Examples:
You do not look
well
today.
I don't feel
well
, either.
Adjectives
come in three forms, also called degrees. An
adjective in its normal or usual form is called a
positive
degree adjective. There are also the
comparative
and
superlative

degrees, which are used for comparison, as in the following examples:

Positive Comparative Superlative

sweet sweeter sweetest
bad worse worst
efficient more efficient most efficient


A common error in using adjectives and adverbs arises from using the wrong form of comparison. To
compare two things
, always use a
comparative adjective
:

Example
: She is the cleverer of the two women (never cleverest)
Adjectives & Adverbs
There are also
three degrees of adverbs
. In formal usage, do not drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparative form.

Incorrect
: She spoke
quicker
than he did.

Correct
: She spoke
more quickly
than he did.

Incorrect
: Talk
quieter
.

Correct
: Talk
more quietly
.
When this, that, these, and those are followed by a noun, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns.

Examples
:
This
house is for sale. (describes house)
This
is an
adjective
.

This
is for sale.
This
is a
pronoun
.
This concludes the notes about
adjectives and adverbs.
Examples:

He speaks
slowly.
(answers the question how)

He speaks
very
slowly.
(answers the question how slowly)
adjectives
and
adverbs
How to Make a Proper Adjective

You can make a proper adjective in several ways: take a proper noun and try adding the suffixes
–ian, –an,
or
–esque
. These suffixes often work when converting a proper noun into a proper adjective. Try adding the suffixes
–like, –ian, –istic
, which are also effective.

Examples of proper adjectives created from proper nouns:

American (from America)
Chinese (from China)
Korean (from Korea)

Defining Proper Adjectives

You are familiar with the proper noun: the special nouns in the English language that have their first letter capitalized. These are the nouns that refer to
specific
things, places, or people. For example,
writer
is a regular noun
, but
Shakespeare
is a proper noun
.

The
noun
country
is regular
, but
Canada
is a proper noun
. Now, proper nouns are in fact the origins for proper adjectives.
If
Shakespeare
is the proper noun,
Shakespearian
is the proper adjective
. If Canada is the proper noun, Canadian is the proper adjective. Just like proper nouns, proper adjectives are capitalized, too.
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