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Anthropology Cultutral Project
Transcript of Anthropology Cultutral Project
Period 4 Customs and Traditions Family and Household Language, Clothing, and Food Education, Art, and Music Social Classes/Society Political Structure Economic Practices Religion Roles of Men and Women Change and Technology Unique/Important Lacks class hierarchies and chiefs Social structuring= the kinship system (allows each person to be named in relation to one another) Groups=
Tribes or "Nations"
Sections and Subsections
Hordes or Bands
Families Lacks class hierarchies and chiefs (not-war-makers) Tends to stress authority of men who have achieved status of elders in a community Traditionally councils of men made political decisions, but complex kinship systems created checks and balances that tempered the power of the elders and through which women could exercise influence Traditionally women are principle food gatherers collecting seeds, vegetables, fruit, small insects, and larvae. They are also responsible for caring for young children. Because women are food gatherers women artists paint stories associated with this. Traditionally men are responsible for hunting protein based food. Once the age of six boys leave the care of their mother to join the men and learn to hunt. Both men and women have roles as traditional healers. Ceremonies, which are a vital role in society, are segregated and some are combined. Women have more "women's business" ceremonies like dealing with fertility Roles of Men and Women Both are selected as elders to be custodians of the law and jointly make decisions for the welfare of the group. Traditional housing
•Most aboriginal people live in the outback like their ancestors, prefer to live, cook and sleep outdoors
•Aboriginal housing is very simple and is used principally for shelter from extreme weather
•The houses are made of sheets of bark propped up on a framework
•The houses design is based on a dreamtime story in which the first bark was built by 2 legendary figures, the bush-nut man and his wife, for protection from the monsoon rains of the northern outback
•Modern Aboriginal families in townships and rural settlements often live in simply constructed one-room houses made of timber, corrugated iron and concrete. Some have modern technology, but most are adapted to the aboriginal way
• Dreaming sites= each ancestor is associated with a particular area of land and some sacred places• Aboriginal people are responsible for maintaining their dreaming site. Which means keeping it in the same condition as it was in dreamtime and ensuring that people do not disturb the site TRADITIONS
•Hunting and gathering activities are closely interwoven with harvesting practices and religious rituals designed to ensure that the food supply is plentiful.
•Rituals called increase ceremonies are also important to ensuring the food supply. Only men who have been initiated into the ways of the tribe can participate in these ceremonies CUSTOMS
•People with the same totem, cannot intermarry
•One cannot speak directly to their mother in law
•When they reach puberty, brothers and sisters must not speak directly to each other
•Traditional ceremonies are called corroborees, they held at night and reenact stories of the dreamtime ancestors through song and dance
•Performers move like the animals they represent, reenacting the movements of their ancestors •Some corroborees are secret ceremonies that the only boys welcomed must go through initiation ceremonies, boys who have reached puberty learn the secrets of the tribe from the older men. They learn their ancestral laws and the sacred places of their ancestors through story song and dance.
•Initiation ceremonies are a time of physical ordeals which can include circumcision, knocking out a boys two front teeth, or requiring him to endure a day of lying in the boiling sun without food or water. If a boy breaks under the ordeals, he must try again when he is a year older CUSTOMS LANGUAGE
•Many aboriginal words have been adopted especially for towns, streams, animals and plants
•The Result is places named such as “coober pearl”, “Wasga wasga”, and “ grabben gullen”
•Had no writing system
•Aborigines groups spoke between about 250 language consisting of as many 70 dialects
•Only about 50 languages are considered “strong”
•Aborigines Kriol is a language spoken throughout Australia that combines English and the indigenous aboriginal language CLOTHING
•Because they live in the outback of Australia they don’t wear much
•In corroborees, men’s costumes include feathers glued to their bodies with blood and intricate patterns painted on with red and yellow ochre. The patterns have symbolic meaning that relate to a dreamtime story
•Aborigines do not cultivate crops or raise livestock
•Aborigines in urban areas and on large settlements get food from grocery stores
•Spears, which are the most common traditional weapon, is used by hunters
•Boomerangs= also a traditional weapon use to hunt game
•They believe each food was created by the ancestor beings
•Food aborigines hunt and gather is called bush tucker includes animals and plants
•They eat wallabies, wild horses, lizards, snakes, bugs, ants, termites, anteaters, fish, worms, crocodiles and even wild camels
•Certain foods like witchetty grubs are eaten raw but are high in protein and fat
•Religious laws also govern the way aborigines prepare, cook, and eat traditional foods
•Aborigines also prefer to use traditional means to prepare food Food EDUCATION
•Aborigines believe their people need an education system that both supports aboriginal culture and impacts skills so their children can get jobs in mainstream society
•Aboriginal educators now rely on new approaches including employing traditional teaching techniques(storytelling) in modern setting using aboriginal language
•Aboriginal students are generally very shy and do not like to stand out even for excellent work.
•Aborigines had the earliest known artwork
•Their sculptures and cave paintings illustrates a mythical age when spirits and fantastic beasts roamed the land
•That period, called the dreamtime is celebrated in aboriginal ceremonies called corroborees, in which dancers paint dreamtime symbols on their bodies and musicians beat clap sticks or play the didgeridoo, a long hollow pipe made from a tree long MUSIC
•Didgerido= is a wind instrument developed around 1,500 years ago and still in widespread use today both in Australia and around the world. It is sometimes described as a natural wooden trumpet or "drone pipe". Musicologists classify it as a brass aerophone.
•Clapsticks= a type of drumstick, percussion mallet or claves that are used to serve the purpose of maintaining rhythm with Aboriginal voice chants. Clapsticks are intended for striking one stick on another. As an ancestral instrument that traditionally accompanies the didgeridoo, it is sometimes referred to as musicstick or just Stick. In the language of the Yolngu Aborigines of Northeast Arnhem Land, Australia these clapsticks are called bimli. These sticks are used to keep time with the playing of the didgeridoo. Aboriginal Land Rights
•Belief that their role= caretakers of traditional land was the very purpose of their existence
•1788= 1st British fleet landed on the shores and declared Australia terra nullius (land owned by no one)
•White settlers then moved inland and evicted the Aborigines and used their hunting grounds for grazing and agriculture
•200 years later= Aboriginals activist challenged the concept of terra nullius in Australia’s highest court
•1992 (10 year court battle) judges ruled British’s assumption was false
•Symbolically= showed respect for Aborigines’ ancient culture and way of life
•Practical terms= large tracts of land was returned (now owns it legally)
•Result= many return to land of ancestors where they are free to practice traditions and make their own decisions about how they wish to live Nomadic way of life
•Aborigine religion centers on a spirit world known as the dreamtime or the dreaming
•They believe that this world existed before humans and continue to exist parallel to ordinary life.
•The creation of the world by spirits and creatures from the dreamtime is told in stories passed down from generation to generation (also in art and dance)
•The dreaming sets out the structure of the rules for social behavior and ceremonies performed
•Their belief can be described as a sophisticated form of animism
•Uluru is believed to be the spiritual center of Australia and source of numerous spiritual forces permeating the country
•They believe the ancestors were humanlike, but could assume human form. They were gifted with superhuman powers, they came from the earth and down from the earth to walk on earth. They shaped rocks, rivers, mountains, desserts, forest and when they were down with their work, they would return back to the earth Tools and implements reflect geographical location (tools varied by group and location)
•Coastal tribes= Used fish bones to tip their weapons
•Desert tribes= Used stone tips
1st to introduce ground edges on cutting tools and to grind seeds
Used stone tools for many things: to make other tools, to get and prepare food, to chop wood, and to prepare animal skins
Stone fish traps used in rivers where water levels rise and fall (used to catch fish after rain)
Change= European Discovery and colonization of Australia No written language
Entire indigenous population maintained a single kind of adaptation (hunting and gathering) into modern times
A lock of hair (founded by a British anthropologist a century ago) has given the 1st genome of an Australian aborigine, along with insights into the earliest migration from the ancestral human homeland somewhere in northeast Africa
Important= Ancestors (like gods)
Significant to present= (lifestyle in trouble) Many left traditional life and moved to suburbs. 40% unemployment rate in many populations due to discrimination (even police and government) Some places are segregated, or aborigines aren’t served at all. Some people are trying to establish equal rights though they have a long way. UNIQUE FACTS
•A DREAMTIME STORY: WHY THE STARS TWINKLE
One night, a long time ago, some women went out to dig for yams. The dug and dug with their digging sticks. Some were lucky and found lots of yams. Others did not find any. After returning to camp, those who had yams cooked them over a fire. The women who did not find any yams felt ashamed. They decided to live in the sky so that people all around the world could see them. But as they were rising up to the sky, the women who were eating their yams rushed to join them and went up too, All the women turned into stars. On a clear night you can see them. The stars of those who did not find any yams are still and dim. But the lucky ones, the ones who found yams, twinkle as they eat their yams.
-from the Maung group of the Northern Territory