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Transcript of Children

0 - 3 months
(Jenny Lau)
Crying is baby's way of communication. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Lifts head. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Responds to sound. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Stares at faces. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Startles easily. (Sutter Health, 2013)
Can see black-and-white patterns. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Recognises bottle or breast. (Aussie Childcare Network, n.d.)
Turns head towards sounds. (Aussie Childcare Network, n.d.)
A child's development and milestones move at a rapid pace from when a child is born to the age of eight. Key areas of a child's development include behaviour, general development, socialisation and language. These key areas have been explored through social constructivism. The resources used are credible as they have been gathered using government organisations, medical support centres and websites, that have been supported by the NSW Government social services. The checklist of accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage has been used to justify the reliability of the resources used for this presentation. (Metzger, 2007)

At birth, baby cannot support their head unaided. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Calms when swaddled and rocked. (Sutter Health, 2013)
Hands close involuntarily when startled. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Baby's eyesight starts to focus on faces at four weeks. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Baby arts to recognise faces and coo at six weeks. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Raises head slightly when on stomach (Sutter Health, 2013)

Baby communicates by looking at you, smiling, gesturing and making sounds. You communicate by using face and eye contact, talking, singing, smiling and cuddles. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Baby learns to open and close fist. (KidsHealth, n.d.)
Baby begins to explore surroundings with their hands. (KidsHealth, n.d.)
Through sound, coos and ahhs teach baby about conversation. (KidsHealth, n.d.)
For the first two months, babies depend on others to initiate interaction. (Kids Health, n.d.)
At three months, baby will have learnt to communicate through facial expressions, vocalisations and gestures. (Kids Health, n.d.)
School Age
5 - 8 years
(Eden Bates)

Child can manage feelings with some independence. (ABC, n.d.)
Can understand consequences.
Friendships become more and more important. (CDC, n.d.)
Show more independence from parents and family.

Still very attached to and dependent on parents, but less need to be in direct physical contact with them.
Will begin to be modest about nudity.
Will have high energy levels. (Kidspot, n.d.)
Perform most ball-related skills correctly. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)

More creative and experiment more with toys.
Formed special friendships with one or two other children.
Learning how to play fair.
Learning self control. (ABC, n.d.)

Be confident using the telephone. (around age eight)
Know the different tenses (past, present and future) and be able to use them appropriately in sentences.
Likes to tell jokes and riddles (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Enjoy reading a book on her own.
Begin to speak very clearly.
3 - 12 months
• Starts to recognise own feeling. (CDC,n.d)
• Stranger anxiety. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Recognise self in mirror. (CDC,n.d)
• Interest in social play. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Aware of verbal praises. (DEEWR,2012)
• Shows affection towards others. (DEEWR,2012)
• Develops separation anxiety. (CDC,n.d)
• Imitates facial expressions & body language.
• Bonds with parents and family. (CDC,n.d)
• Ability to reassure own self. (12months)
• Begins to roll over. (CDC,n.d)
• Lifts head up when on tummy. (CDC,n.d)
• Sits without support. (DEEWR,2012)
• Starts Crawling.(CDC,n.d)
• Pulls self-up and stands without support. (CDC,n.d)
• Grasp toys. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Object permanence. (DEEWR,2012)
• Plays with feet and toes. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Transfer objects from one hand to another.(CDC,n.d)
• Adds objects into container. (CDC,n.d)

• Connects sounds with toys.(CDC,n.d)
• Learns through sensory play.(Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Able to coordinate looking, hearing and touching.(DEEWR,2012)
• Interest in books, pictures and stories. (DEEWR,2012)
• Looks at correct picture when image is named.
• Understand cause and affect. (CDC,n.d)

• Coo and laugh. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Responds when spoken. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Responds to changes in tone of voice (CDC,n.d)
• Uses voice to express feeling. (DEEWR,2012)
• Imitates some sounds.(DEEWR,2012)
• Babbles tunefully. (Raising Children Network,n.d)
• Copies action and sounds.(CDC,n.d)
• Responds to own name. (CDC,n.d)
• Responds to simple instruction. (DEEWR,2012)
• Says “Mama” or “dada”.(Raising Children Network,n.d)
1 - 3 years
Joanne Clarke
Can walk, climb, dance, kick and throw a ball. (DEECD, 2013)
Is able to recognise themselves in a mirror or photo. (DEECD, 2013)
Is able to get dressed with help. (DEEWR, 2012)
Can feed themselves using utensils and a cup. (DEEWR, 2012)
Is able to follow two or more directions. (DEEWR, 2012)
Parallel play - will play alongside others without interaction at 1-2yrs. (DEEWR, 2012)
Will still depend on adult reassurance. (DEEWR, 2012)
Develops imagination and simple make believe play. DEEWR, 2012)
At 2-3 years children will be unlikely to share toys without protesting. (DEEWR, 2012)
3 - 5 years
Kathleen Taylor

Begins to establish an appropriate way to behave in this age group. (DEECD, 2013)
Begin to learn about being caring and respectful of others. (DEECD, 2013)
Begin to learn how to resolve confrontation. (DEECD, 2013)
Understands sharing and appropriate play with others. (DEECD, 2013)
Tantrums start to reduce. (DEECD, 2013)
They need structure in order to not feel overwhelmed.
(Raising Children Network, n.d.)

Begin to become more coordinated with hands and limbs. E.g. playing catch, holding crayons, climbing. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Becomes curious about their body and others around them. (Raising Children Network, n.d.)
Hand-eye co-ordination begins to improve. E.g. pouring liquid becomes easier, completing puzzles.(Raising Children Network, n.d.)

Begins to socialise and make friends, but makes sure they have familiar faces nearby for security. (DEEWR, n.d.)
Begins to copy others, by showing an interest in others. (DEEWR, n.d.)
Becomes more confident and develops trust. (DEEWR, n.d.)
Able to join in with a group of children successfully.
(Raising Children Network, n.d.)

The way they communicate and how they interact gives them a sense of belonging. (DEEWR, n.d.)
Use of language helps them in their role playing activities. (DEEWR, n.d.)
Begins to improve speech by having extended conversations and asking complex questions. (DEECD, 2013)

Can be easily frustrated and temper tantrums begin at 1-2 years (DEECD, 2013)
Has the ability to self regulate their behaviour. (DEECD, 2013)
Is demanding of adult attention. (DEEWR, 2012)
Can show a strong attachment to a parent or carer. (DEEWR, 2012)
At 3 years temper tantrums decrease. (DEECD, 2013)
Points to pictures in a book and to body parts when asked. (DEEWR, 2012)
Can follow simple commands and understands simple questions at 1-2 years. (DEEWR, 2012)
Enjoys songs and rhymes and listening to simple stories. (DEEWR, 2012)
Can follow two step directions at 2-3 years. (DEEWR, 2012)
Recognises and gets excited at sounds such as phone or door bell ringing. (DEECD, 2014)

There are varying degrees of change and progression in a child’s early years of development and each child develops in their own way. Children will develop different skills and abilities as a newborn, baby, toddler, preschooler and at school age in key areas of behaviour, development, socialisation and language. (DEECD, 2013) Thorough exploration of credible resources in child development was gained by establishing that each resource was free from errors, the authors gave full contact details, there was in depth information of children’s development and sources were current and up to date. (Metzger, 2007)
Peony Coilparampil
(Emery, 2012)
(Simply Parenting, 2009)
(Simply Parenting, 2009)
(EIRMC, 2012)
Aussie Childcare Network. (2009). Cognitive Development for Infants 0-12 months. Retrieved from http://www.aussiechildcarenetwork.com/wiki/Cognitive_Development_for_Infants_0-12_months (08/05/14)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Important Milestones: Your Baby at six Months retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-6mo.html (25/04/14)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Important Milestones: Your Baby at nine Months retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-9mo.html (25/04/14)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Important Milestones: Your Child at one Year retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-1yr.html (25/04/14)

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, (2012). Developmental milestones and the Early Years Learning Framework and the National Quality Standard. Retrieved from http://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/developmental-milestones.pdf

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, (2013). Learning and Development. Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/parents/health/Pages/development.aspx

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, (2013), Preschoolers: (3-5 years). Retrieved from: http://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/parents/health/Pages/preschoolers.aspx#5

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, (2013). Toddlers (1-3 years). Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/parents/health/Pages/toddler.aspx

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Early Years Learning Framework, (n.d.), p.31, 38, 42. Retrieved from: http://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf

Eirmc .(2012,,July 18). Developmental stages for babies 8-10 months (Video) Retrieved from (15/04/14)

Emery, C. (2012, November 22). Developmental Milestones: age 3 – 5. [video file]. Retrieved from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIUHWZrBSSs

KidsHealth from Nemours (2014), Encouraging Your Baby To Learn and Play. Retrieved from: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/learn13m.html# (08/05/14)

Metzger, M.J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. Journal Of The American Society For Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2078-2091

Pathways.org.(2013,Feb 6). Six month old babies typical and atypical developmen(Video) Retrieved from

Raising Children Network. (2014). Babies 2-12 Months. Retrieved from http://raisingchildren.net.au/babies/babies.html (22/04/14)

Raising Children Network, (2014), Development Tracker age 3 to 4 ; Social and Emotional. Retrieved from: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/social_and_emotional_growth_from_age_3_to_4_pbs.html/context/566

Raising Children Network (2014), Newborns. Newborn development: In A Nutshell. Retrieved from http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/newborn_development_nutshell.html

Raising Children Network, (2014), Preschoolers development in a nutshell. Retrieved from: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/preschoolers_development_nutshell.html

Raising Children Network, (2014), 4-5 years. Preschool Development. Retrieved from: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/child_development_four_to_five_years.html/context/567

Simplyparenting. (2009, August 3). Playing with your twelve month old [video file]. Retrieved from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5Y8XPS2vwg

Simplyparenting. (2009, August 3). Playing with your two year old [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtbe.com/watch?v=pL8EnzgK6Sk

Sutterhealth, (2013), Your Newborn. Retrieved from http://www.content.sutterhealth.org/ehr/pediatrics/developmental/Newborn.pdf (08/05/14)

Youtube, (2013. June 28), Newborn Baby Development Stages & Milestones - Help Me Grow MN (Video). Retrieved from (17/04/14)
(Youtube, June 28 2013)
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