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Synthetic Biology Prezi

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Stephanie Everhart

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of Synthetic Biology Prezi

Foundations of Molecular Biology
SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY PSU iGEM 2013
Synthetic Biology Basics
an organism's complete set of DNA
Central Dogma of Biology
Synthetic Biology
Synthetic Biology: the use of engineering principles to design/redesign a natural biological system through alteration of the system's genome
Ethics
a discrete set of DNA that codes for a certain protein or set of proteins
DNA Structure
Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA
Phosphate Group
Sugar
Nitrogen Bases
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

The order of nitrogen bases determines what biological instructions are contained on a DNA strand
Every 3 nitrogen bases code for an amino acid
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins
DNA
RNA
Protein
An enzyme, RNA polymerase, copies a gene's DNA sequence into messenger RNA
mRNA is "read" by a ribosome, signaling tRNA to transport the proper amino acids to be linked together to create a desired protein
(A, T, G, C)
(A, U, G, C)
(Amino Acids)
Cassette Parts

Promoter
Stop Codon
Coding Sequence
Start Codon
DNA sequence needed to turn on a gene
Initiates transcription
Specific to the type of organism: bacteria, animal, plant, etc.
Various levels of strength
Found at the beginning of the gene of interest
Necessary to mark the beginning of the amino acid sequence that will form a protein
RNA Codon is ALWAYS AUG
The sequence that codes for the gene you are interested in inserting into your organism
This sequence codes for the proteins needed for a certain quality to be expressed
Terminator
Signals termination of translation, releasing the amino acid chain
RNA codon either UAA, UAG, UGA
Signals the end of transcription, typically follows the stop codon
Binding Site
Needed for the initiation of translation
Helps the ribosome bind to the RNA strand
Prokaryotic: Ribosome Binding Site (RBS)
Eukaryotic: 5' cap & Eukaryotic Initiation Factor (eIF)
1. Select the characteristic you wish to work with
2. Acquire the genetic sequence that codes for your desired characteristic
a. Isolation vs. Synthesis
3. Put the desired gene into your organism
Methods:
a. Virus
b. Artificial Chromosome
c. Plasmid
d. Gene Gun


Activity
Steps of Synthetic Biology Scientific Process
Computers
Organisms
vs.
Studying Effects of a Gene
Synthetic Biology
Success
Potential
Diagnostic tools for diseases (HIV, hepatitis)
Genetically Modified Foods
Salmon altered to mature faster
Potatoes with vaccines for cholera
Golden Rice has beta-carotene to decrease Vitamin A deficiencies
Corn modified with insect-killing gene
Medical Applications:
Agricultural Applications:
Miscellaneous:
Disease detection, disease fighting
Reversal of aging
Organ modification: redesign kidney and liver to make a "kliver"
Controlled crop maturation
Fuel and plastic production
Seeds that grow into chairs, house
Dust eating bacteria
Total material breakdown with bacteria
Creating life on Mars
Transcription:
Translation:
DNA
RNA
RNA Polymerase
Ribosome
Protein
Amino Acids
Genome:
Gene:
Full transcript