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The Ways We Lie by Stephanie Ericsson
Transcript of The Ways We Lie by Stephanie Ericsson
Tasha Gosine, Andrew Louie, Mosammet Asma, Amanda Thomas
Ericsson uses many rhetorical strategies such as:
appeals to logos
Rhetorical Mode and Structure
Stephanie Ericsson classifies the variety of lies into separate categories. These categories include, “The White Lie”, “Façades”, “Ignoring the Plain Facts”, “Deflecting”, “Omission”, “Stereotypes and Clichés”, “Groupthink”, “Out-and-Out Lies”, “Dismissal”, and “Delusion”.
Speaker- Stephanie Ericsson
Occasion- The act of lying
Audience- Anyone who has been lied to and/or lied and can relate. Or people willing to learn of some of the different types of lies.
Purpose- To educate people of the various types of lies. For example: the white lie, facades, ignoring the plain facts, deflecting, omission, stereotypes and cliches, group think and delusion.
Setting- San Fransico, 1993
Tone- The tone is informational, because the author doesn't criticize anything,instead she explains it based on definition and not bias or opinion.
The author makes very personal connections to the lies that she has told on a daily basis. She includes personal experiences which helps her connect to her readers because they common daily lies she used in her explanations are most likely shared by others.
Language and Tone
For example: "When I put on suit to go to a client, I feel as though I am putting on another face, obeying the expectation that serious business-people wear suits rather than sweatpants."
Ericsson's tone give the reader a feeling that small daily lies are used for the better. "We lie. We all do. We exaggerate, we minimize, we avoid confrontation, we spare people's feelings, we conveniently forget, we keep secrets, we justify lying to the big-guy institutions" This sentence portrays how easily people can lie about the smallest things which many people do.
Language and Tone Continued
Another example is the use of rhetorical questions such as "Sure I lie, but it doesn't hurt anything. Or does it?" She uses these questions to come up with more severe consequences that a lie may lead to in the future no matter how small it may be.
Ericsson narrates her life and the ways she has used these different lies in varying situations. Because it is a narration, she uses “I” to bring herself into the essay, and also justify her experiences with lying.
Ericsson provides unique examples that accompany each category of lies. For example, for a white lie, she says “Telling a friend he looks great when he looks like hell can be based on a decision that the friend needs a compliment more than a frank opinion.
Rhetorical Strategies Continued
Ericsson uses analogy when speaking of white lies, for example, “It is an act of subtle arrogance for anyone to decide what is best for someone else.” She explains that we tell white lies when the liar assumes that the lie will cause less damage to a person compared to the truth. However, it shows arrogance in the liar when they think that their intentions are the best for the person being lied to. Ericsson is comparing what we think is right for a person to what is actually right.
Metaphor: Ericsson compares silence to a lie when she quoted R.L. Stevenson, "The crulest lies are often told in silence."
Appeal to Logos: Ericsson inferences that, "there must be some merit to lying" after a week of not lying. This is because of the consequnces she faced such as being fired when telling her client that she wasnt at work on time because she didn't feel like it.