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Transcript of Intrinsic Motivation
The Felt-Tip Pens and Four-Year-Olds Study
Why Students Go to College Matters to Their Success
by Caralee Adams
How to Turn Play Into Work
by David Greene and Mark R. Lepper
"Work consists of
whatever a body is
obliged to do and....
Play consists of
whatever a body is
not obliged to do."
Intrinsic motivation: something that is done for it's own sake
Extrinsic motivation: motivation that comes from outside an individual
Example: A student who puts a lot
of effort into school because
they want to learn more.
Example: A student who puts a lot of effort into school because they know they will receive money for their good grades.
Problem: Not every worthwhile activity
is intrinsically interesting.
Research raises the concern of
the potential danger in using extrinsic rewards too often.
"When the extrinsic reward is no longer available, the child may be less
likely to engage in the activity on his own."
-Three- to five-year old children spent a few days a week playing with toys of their choice.
-Each day the teachers would set out magic-markers and paper as well.
-They found out which children initially liked using the markers to draw with.
- A few weeks later, different groups of children were asked to draw some pictures with the markers.
-The different groups: 1.) No award, 2.) Unexpected award, and 3.) Expected award
-The No award group was told that they did a good job.
-The other two groups were given fancy certificates.
One week later..
-The children were observed in the normal class room setting.
-The ones who had expected to receive an award in the experiment sessions did not spend as much time drawing in the classroom as they did before. (Time spent went from 17% to 9%).
-The ones who had gotten no award or received one unexpectedly showed a slight increase in interest of the markers and drawing.
-Extrinsic rewards are only powerful as long
as the reward system is in operation
-Extrinsic rewards can be used to initially control a
behavior, but should be phased out as soon as
-Many young people are expected to go to college.
-Researchers asked students why they were pursuing this higher education.
-They discovered a variety of answers.
University of Rochester researchers examined these different reasons and how they affect academic success.
They found that students are more likely to receive higher grades and their degree if their reasons for attending college were based on intrinsic motivation.
Students who placed a high priority on making social connections were not as likely to succeed.
"Students who emphasized relationships with peers as their motivation for attending college may have done so at the expense of the time they devoted to academics," according to the study.
-Knowing this, counselors can encourage a balance of work and socializing.
-Motivation impact varies among socioeconomic groups.
-Autonomy was more important
to students of higher SES than to that of lower SES students.
-Advisers can then help students realize the economic benefit of good performance in school.
Intrinsic Motivation to learn: the nexus between
Psychological Health and academic success
by John Mark Froiland, PhD, Emily Oros, PhD,
Liana Smith, B.S., & Tyrell Hirchert, B.A.
(3 inherent psychological needs)
1.) developing competence
2.)the need for relatedness (creating meaningful connections
3.) need for autonomy(perceiving that one is able to initiate and regulate one’s own
Promotes intrinsic motivation!
Students who have well developed intrinsic motivation are more likely than others to..
-demonstrate strong conceptual learning
-high overall achievement in school
Benefits of intrinsic motivation
-improved psychological well-being
-positive affect while doing homework
-less drug abuse
-is a strong factor for performance for students and adults in the work world
-is a pathway to happiness for adults and children
Article 1: Explained how intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are both necessary but intrinsic is more beneficial.
Article 2: Students who enroll in college for intrinsic reasons are more likely to be successful.
Article 3: Focused on the long term benfits
Adams, C. (2013, April 26). Why students go to college matters to their success. Education Week. Retrieved October 8, 2013
Froiland, J., Oros, E., Smith, L., & Hirchert, T. (2012). Intrinsic motivation to learn: The nexus between psychological health and academic success. Contemporary School Psychology, 1691- 100.
Greene, D. & Lepper, M. (1974, September). Intrinsic motivation: How to turn play into work. Psychology Today, 8(4), 49-_. Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr., Popular Psychology Magazine Collection
(Box 43) at the Center for the History of Psychology, University of Akron, Akron, OH.