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The Consequences of The Development Gap
Transcript of The Consequences of The Development Gap
Development gap in megacities and the growth of the urban poor
Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
250,000 move to cities from poorer areas
2.5 million slum dwellers
No water supply, no refuse collection and no proper sanitation
No secondary schooling or health services
Yet, Nairobi is the main commercial center of the country.
It has a well-developed infrastructure, including modern financial and communications systems.
Leading domestic (Kenya Commercial Bank) and international banks (Barclays, Citibank, Standard Chartered) operate out of Nairobi
Large oil economy since 1970s
Population of nearly 10 million
Now serves as the transportation hub for greater West Africa.
Annual growth rates exceeding 3% through 2015 will vault Lagos onto the list of the world’s 15 largest cities by 2025
Two-thirds of the population of Lagos lives in slum neighborhoods
Women in developing countries
More likely to be unpaid family members
Occupy low-status jobs and have lower earnings
Limited participation in politics and government
64% of illiterate adults are women
57% of children who receive no primary education are girls
In developing countries 1 in 61 women die during pregnancy
In LDCs it's 1 in 17
Gap between women and men for health, education, nutrition and participation in decision-making
Infant mortality is higher for girls
Illiteracy is more common in women
Most productive members of families migrate from villages and women head families
Women constitute 60% of agricultural labour force
Social and political unrest resulting from disparities in wealth and opportunity- South Africa
Privatising state assets and cuts in the civil service:
Gave the wealthy white minority more opportunities to become richer.
The poor (majority black) got poorer due to jobs being lost
Widening differences within ethnic groups:
A small black middle class has emerged
Poorer whites have lost state benfits
Caste Divisions in India
This works as a class system and classes are defined by birth and family. Although it is illegal it still is prevalent in India, in particular in rural areas.
The lowest class are Dalits, which are isolated to cerain parts of a village, certain schools and temples. It is almost impossible to move out of this Caste.
However positive discrimination does now exist, and there are some rich Dalits in urban areas, which still benefit from positive discrimination.
300,000 IT workers in Bangalore
A need for new bar staff (doubled wages if worth keeping)
New amenities (shopping malls, showrooms, bars and cafes)
Bangalore has the highest average incomes in India
Spending on infrastructure has further increased FDI
Still caste system that exists
Literacy rates are 61%
Wages are only 10% of what they'd be in London
World's 5th largest carbon emissions
Pollution causes smog
Offers tax breaks to attract FDI, decreases wages, decreases public spending