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The Challenges of Heroism

8th Grade SB Lessons 1.1-1.4

Amanda Vickers

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of The Challenges of Heroism

The Challenges of Heroism
Essential Questions:
1. What defines a hero?
2. How do visual images enhance or create meaning?
Respond to the two essential questions
List synonyms and associations for the word "challenge."
Discuss with your table group and add to your brainstorming list.
In your groups,
write down
Define the word "challenge" and note its denotation
Discuss its use as a noun and a verb
Discuss its positive connotation
On your own using a synonym of the word "challenge"
Provide the definition or denotation
Offer other synonyms
Create a graphic representation (literal or symbolic)
Answer the following questions:
What experience do you have with the concept of challenge?
How can you apply this concept to your academic life?
How have you applied this concept outside of school?
Words to know...(
copy into your composition books
- the writer's choice and use of language
- the literal meaning of a word; the dictionary definition
- the suggested or implied meaning of a word
Brainstorm: What types of challenges relate to...
the world today?
the United States?
our community?
personal issues?
What great acts, great discoveries, or great achievements have resulted from challenges?
In a tree map, list three personal challenges you will (or will choose to) face this semseter.
For each challenge, list three steps you must take in order to meet this challenge successfully
In the frame of reference, explain what you see as the most significant challenge facing the world, this country, and your community.
Create seven boxes on your paper with the following headlines: ANGRY, HAPPY, SAD, HONEST, CALM, NERVOUS.
Using the provided list of words fill each category box with at least seven other words that have the same or similar denotation. The connotations may differ.
Word to know:
- the writer's or speaker's attitude towards the subject
Pick one word and act out its connotation.
Create a category for the eight words that do not already fit into the established categories.
Difficulties in understanding tone in prose or poetry
Reader doesn't have the speaker's actual voice to help interpret meaning and attitude.
Reader must depend on nuances and connotations of words
To misinterpret tone is to
misinterpret meaning.
Copy the following paragraph into the reading section of your notebook.
Yikes. Why me? I never asked to be editor. I've only been on the newspaper staff for a year. I can't be editor. The rest of the staff won't listen to me. I won't be able to deal with those deadlines, and what about the advertiser? I'm not sure I can handle the pressure. I feel overwhelmed just thinking about it. I like to write and read, but lead and edit seems like a different world. What am I going to do?
Choose one of the tone words from the previous activity that you think best describes the tone. Highlight words or phrases that suggest the tone.
Words to know:
- a group of lines, usually similar in length and pattern, that form a unit within a poem.
- a central idea, message, or purpose of a literary work
"A Man"
by Nina Cassian
Step One: T is for Title
While it's generally true that you should never judge a book by its cover, it's perfectly okay to judge a poem by its title. Take a look a the title and try to decide what the poem might be about. Remember, the poet chose that title for a reason--so what IS the reason?
As we read this poem together, think about how the man can be considered a hero.
What is the challenge of his life now after the war?
Why did the author chose to divide the poem into two stanzas?

What is the effect of having the last four lines of the poem as a new stanza?
Underline the last two lines of the poem.
Are these lines meant to be taken literally (denoation) or figuratively (connotation)?
Step 2: P is for Paraphrase
Paraphrasing is an important skill. The first step toward analyzing *anything* you read is putting what you read into words you understand.

So, when you PARAPHRASE, you're restating the plot (the literal meaning) of the poem.
Step 3: C is for Connotation
Remember--words can have more than one meaning. Take a moment to read the poem and consider any deeper or extended meanings. Are there any poetic devices? These are often clues to deeper meaning. Look for imagery, symbolism, and diction in particular (but don't overlook more obvious devices such as point of view or sound devices). Look for the literary devices, and explain what they mean. Just as the author chose the title for a specific reason, those metaphors didn't show up by accident. What do they MEAN? What do they suggest about the poem (or perhaps, about life)?
Step 4: A is for Attitude
For some reason, this is one that gives students a lot of difficulty. I find that surprising, because I feel sure that your parents have spoken to you quite a lot about the words attitude and tone--you know what they mean, you just can't translate that to literature! :)

Again, consider the poet's diction. Why did s/he choose those particular words? Is it possible that the speaker has one "attitude" or tone and the poet has a different one? Identify the attitude(s) present in the poem and then identify the literary devices (including diction) that help express the tone.
Step 5: S is for Shifts
If you've identified the speaker and the attitude, then it's possible you've also identified a shift. Maybe the speaker has a change in tone--that's going to be a shift.

Carefully consider the poem and see if you can identify spots where the speaker's feelings change (or shift). Focus in particular on the conclusion.
Step 6: T is for Title
I know, I know--we already did the title, right? But that was before you knew what the poem meant! :)

Go back and reconsider the title. Does it have any new significance?

Theme is often a difficult concept for students to grasp. Thankfully, TP-CASTT's theme step is actually a three-step process.
Step one, quickly reconsider the plot. What is the poet saying?
Step two, list the subject or subjects of the poem. Begin with the obvious, literal subjects, and then proceed down your list to the more abstract subjects (concepts like "innocence").
Finally, step three, expand your list of subjects into complete sentences that explains what the poet is saying about each.
Step 7: T is for Theme
Brainstorm words that describe the tone before and after the shift in the poem.
Why are some words more appropriate descriptors than others?
What comment is the poet making about this man's challenge?
Write an interpretive statement answering this question.
"Moco Limping"
by David Nava Monreal
Create a TP-CASTT chart on your paper
- Before reading, look at the title. What might this poem show about the idea of challenges and heroism?
As I read this poem aloud, highlight the following words:


brutal hunter,
rickety little canine,

club foot
, stumbler,
my vain heart weeps
, feeble,
imperfection is forgotten
1. Apply the TP-CASTT strategy to "Moco Limping"
2. Examine the connotations of the highlighted words.
What ideas and feelings are associated with the words and phrases?
What attitude or tone do they create?
3. Look at the line breaks. Why do you think the author chose to end each line as he has?
In pairs
Writing Prompt
Write a personal response to "Moco Limping." How can Moco or the speaker be considered a hero? Explain using words and phrases (textual evidence) from the poem.
For example:
- a scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptile
- someone who can not be trusted
Eight Items To Consider When Looking for Shifts
1. Key transition words & conjunctions (however, although, yet)
2. Punctuation
3. Stanza division (esp. in sonnets)
4. Changes in length (to lines or stanzas)
5. Irony
6. The effect of the structure on the poem's meaning
7. Changes in rhyme
8. Changes in diction
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