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active externalization

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Lee Won Choel

on 22 April 2010

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Transcript of active externalization

Cognitively active externalization
for situated reflection Human being actively use external resources The role of performing and monitoring tasks are often
frequently exchanged during collaborative joint problem solving Active use of external resources and frequent role
exchanges, interact and produce solutions Human higher order cognition in interaction inner and outer resources We focus on the nature of:
1. external resources in everyday problem solving
2. reflection of external traces of cognitive process
3. collaborative and interactive problem solving Nature of external resources

"human use external resources consist of whether it is active or passive" Nature of situated reflection

"Human use external resources actively"
This active use leaves physical traces of the trials and
they perceive in the external traces

Brown et al. assumed some internal tendensy toward
the use of exteranl resources that is inherent in human, not the environment
-->initial impulse According to Chambers and Reisberg(1985),
when an ambiguous figure, such as a Dcuk-Rabit,
was shown and the image was stored in memory
asked to draw what they had in mind on a sheet of paper,
and it is reported that they most often immediatelynoticed
the other interpretation
This indicates that reflection, or the perspective shift,
occurs only rarely and is constrained strongly by what
is available or who is around in any particular situation Nature of collaboration

"collaboration that is developed constructively can help
participants deepen their conceptual understanding or
develop abstract representation" What is the mechanism underying this conceptual or
abstract understanding?? 1. Multi-agent situation has better chance of including
a highly abstract solution
2. Built-in mechanism in collaboration that trigger a gradual
generation and integration of various solution Experiment 1: Consistent use of external resources Whether the subjects' use of external resources is active or passive Origami Example,
ask the subjects to shade 3/4 of 2/3 of area of
a sheet of origami to observe how they use exteranl
resources to solve this problem Problems can be solved by mathmatical knowledge,
but it can be solved by folding, cutting, or pencil marking the origami paper [Design]
Origami condition(3/4 first or 2/3 first condition)
-Asked subject to shade 3/4 of 2/3 of the area of a sheet
-Asked subject to shade 2/3 of 3/4 of the area

Material condition
-Cardboard condition
-Acrylic board condition [Procedure]
1. Randimly assigned to each of the four conditions
2. Give sheet and pencil
3. Instructions were given orally

[Dependent measure]
-Mathematical and non-mathematical strategies
-Solution process
One interpretation of this pattern could be that the subject
tended to use an external-oriented strategy rather than a mathematical one
because the task required a physical outcome regardless of the condition differences Experiment 2: Solution shift for a subsequent task in collaboration Whether the subjects could reflect their external traces objectively,
and if they could, when and in what conditions [Design]
-Added two new factor (the pairs and Solos)
-Two task trials [Procedure]
1. Pairs and Solos was the same as the origami condition(experiment 1)
2. All the subjects were given a new sheet of origami after the first trial
3. Presented with the second problem(2/3 first and 3/4 first shift)

The paired subjects were given just one sheet of origami and directed to collaborate,
while the solo subjects were asked to think aloud. (1)Whether they were individual or paired, consistently used external resource
(2)Individual subjects consistently used external resources, whether a sheet of
origami or an arcrylic board, whether the task was easily or not
(3)The pairs' tendency to shift their strategy to mathematical one in secon trial We will explore the details of processes of these patterns (Solo / Collaboration) Solution Variations Which is the economic process?? Two step process is not an "economic" strategy
However, A two-step strategy is more straightforward
interpretation of the instruction The less preferred strategies are one-step, seemingly
economic strategies, but they in fact required additional
mental re-interpretation Summarizes the number of observed trials taken from
all the folding strategies Subjects tended to go-back-to-the-original unfolded stage,
as if they subdivided the overall task to confirm their intermediate
results and to plan the next step of their solution They seemed willing to devote extra effort to this It is imply that the subjects' proto-plans involved some decomposition
of the original task so that they could take advantage of their external traces We are going to analyze the collaborative processes based on
individuals are basically individualistic and their proto-plans are
externally oriented We will first propose a model of steps involved in the shifts
and then examine the process data(protocols) of collaborative settings
to see how the collaboration triggered them [Two sets of coding schemes]
1. Subjects' mental steps
2. Role change [Framework for levels anlysis]
There are four successive levels [Perspective level coding]
Based on contents of the expressions A sample is shown [Results of perspective shifts] According to whether the shift followed the expected step-by-step or not This results indicate that the majority of pairs gradually accomplished
the calculation through repeated re-interpretations of the externalized traces [Result of role exchange and level shift]

Doer: mostly one member who held the paper was coded as the owner
Monitor: reciting instructions suggests a monitoring action rather than
active efforts of the solving Monitors tended to initiate the rise through the levels,
particularly at lower ones

The shifts between these levels involved reference to
internal knowledge and not a re-interpretation of externally
emergent forms This analyses of the shifting pairs revealed the interactive
and gradual integration processes of their solution variation
of different abstraction levels The external traces were the resource for active interpretation
and re-interpretation for each member, contributing to the
collaborative reflection
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