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Modern Russia Criminal Justice System
Transcript of Modern Russia Criminal Justice System
- Inmates must work
- Criminal Code, Indicates all crimes that can possibly be committed
- Judge selection is chosen by president for all courts
By Group 2- Jenna, Sydney, Kelly, Matt, Zach & Tony
There 764 reforming labor institutions and
13 prisons. There are 60 educational-labor
institutions for juvenile criminals. Russia has the third largest amount of jails in the world. The Black Dolphin Prison is one of the oldest prisons in Russia and one of the first prisons for life sentences. Inmates are kept isolated and housed in a cell that has a set of three steel doors. For 90 minutes a day they are transported to a larger cell for exercise time. During this time, the cell is searched for contraband or illegal items that inmates are not permitted to have. Prisoners at Black Dolphin are kept under 24 hour supervision; they are not permitted to rest or sit on their bunks from the time they are awoken until it is time to sleep again. Every 15 minutes, a guard makes rounds to check on each cell to ensure inmates are complying with the rules. The prisoners are fed soup four times a day. There are over 900 officers in the Federal Penitentiary System. Today there are over 880,000 prisoners in Russia.
Probation & Parole System in Russia
- According to World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems, only the judge can decide on sentencing
-Russia has "non custodial" penalties, meaning probation is an option for some offenses
-These penalties can include:
2. Community Service
3. Correctional Work (partly paid compulsory work)
4. Limitation of Freedom, or Institutional Freedom with supervision
-Non custodial penalties are very similar to United States, few differences
-Punishments are implemented by the Federal Service for Execution of Punishment
- Fines are implemented by court bailiffs
-released offenders (parole) are supervised by police
How Laws are Passed in Russia
Legislation is called "Federal Assembly"
In order for a bill to pass in Russia, it must survive three "readings."
The first "reading" allows the bill to be revised.
The second "reading" is simply a double check to make sure that the bill is perfectly revised.
The third and final reading is a vote. In order for this bill to pass, more than 250 (half) members of the State Duma have to vote yes.
It is then sent to the Federation Council, where it is either approved, dismissed, or withheld from consideration within 14 days.
For good behavior and labor, the convict may be encouraged by premiums and given permission to spend additional money for food and everyday goods, permission for additional short visits up to 4 hours and long visits up to three
days, and permission to receive additional mail and parcels. In 1993, over 55,000 prisoners were given the privilege of furloughs. For excellent behavior and honest labor, prisoners may be released from part of their punishment or may be placed in less restrictive punishment.
Every prisoner must work. Prisoners are paid for their labor according to the quality and quantity of their work and in compliance with the national economy's standards and rates. Due to the economic situation in 1993, over 200,000 prisoners were unemployed. The new Constitution prohibits forced work, but it is not clear whether these provisions are being enforced. Juvenile prisoners study to complete the obligatory secondary education program. Other prisoners must study to comply with the 8-year secondary education standard. Those over 40 years old may study at their own discretion.
There are hospitals in the penitentiary. The patients in these hospitals are treated in accordance with the health care legislation of the Russian Federation.
Weird Laws in Russia
Anyone willing to work a 16 hour day can be thrown in prison.
It is illegal to get caught cheating in an exam.
It is illegal to drive a dirty car in the city of Chelyabinsk.
Modern Laws in Russia
Offenses to property
Offenses against public order
Unlawful production, transportation, storage, mailing, or distribution of drugs.
Unlawful obtaining and storage of a small amount of drugs.
Inclination to consume drugs.
Opium, heroine, morphine, hemp, cocaine, marijuana, and codeine.
Some Illegal Drugs in Russia:
LGBT propaganda law. (bans dissemination among children of “propaganda for non traditional sexual relationships,” therefore discriminating against LGBT people.)
Willful Damage of the Identification Card (passport) of a Citizen or Loss of an Identification Card Through Negligence. (Can result in a warning or fine in the amount of from half to three times minimum wage.)
Major Similarities & Differences Between the US CJ System and the Modern Russia CJ System
Russian Police are the main law enforcement
Known as the politsiya, formerly known as the militsiya
Went through a police reform in 2011, many changes were made including name change, personnel reduction, salary increase of 30%, and changes to police and detainee rights.
Reform was made due to President Dimitry Medvedev view on the current police system.
Wanted a change to fix corruption and the image set by the police
Over 7 billion has been spent on this effort
Russian Law Enforcement
Other agencies exist in the Russian Law Enforcement
Investigative Committee of Russia, basically the Russian FBI
Federal Security Service, main domestic security agency; deals with anti-terrorism operations, formerly known as the KGB
Internal Troops, force that supports the politsiya in large scale riots and major armed conflicts; what we consider to be S.W.A.T.
Some smaller law agencies include the Federal Border Guard Service, Federal Migration Service, an the Federal Penitentiary Service.
Men and women are confined in different institutions. As well as adults and juveniles.
-Court system and sentencing is very similar, local courts and supreme court
Same rights and regulations for the public such as search warrants.
Courts are in different territories
Judges decide the punishment and decisions according to the law
Higher courts can appeal decisions of lower courts.
There are two types of courts: Low and high
Court trials work same as ones in America
Judges serve for their life time once hired in Federation Court
Judges serve for 12 years in supreme Court and must be at least 40 Years old and be willing to retire at 70. Must have 15 years experience as a lawyer.
-Everyone has the right to a prosecutor and
is assigned a public defender if they cannot afford it
The Highest judicial body of Russia is the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation or also known as higher court
The Second level of courts are Supreme courts spread throughout the country and territories.
Third level consist of people courts, mainly located in small cities.
Special cases a sentence is settled by majority vote
Alternatives To Incarceration
From the 1920's to the 1950's the Russian government agency had put together 'Gulag' which was in charge of the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era. Millions went through, from petty criminals to political prisoners they built buildings for the government in unpopulated areas. This lead to prisoners who are routinely overworked and kept in inhumane conditions.
The range of criminal punishments in Russia includes capital punishment, imprisonment, fines, reforming works without imprisonment, publicity, dismissal from office, deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or perform certain activities, restitution of financial damage, and additional punishments, such
as confiscation of property and deprivation of
special military or other ranks.
Range of penalties
In Russia if the crime is severe enough you most likely will end up dead whether it be in prison or before you have a chance to go.
Death in Russia