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Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Ariel Guttenplan

on 27 February 2015

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Transcript of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder
ASD

Incidence
About 1 in 88 children has been identified with ASD.
ASD occurs in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups.
Almost 5 times more likely to present in boys than girls.
10% of children with ASD also have a genetic, neurological or metabolic disorder. IE: Fragile X or Down syndrome.
The majority (62%) of children with ASD did not have intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <=70). In fact, a person with high-functioning autism usually has average or above- average intelligence.
School Counselor Implications
Educate parents
Children with ASD show little affection towards their parents and lack the ability to feel empathy; these behaviors can be stressful and confusing for parents.
IEPs and Special Education services
Involved in the identification and provisions of services for students with ASD, typically addressed in an IEP
Often members of the Committee of Special Education meetings (CSE).
collaborate with parents and professionals to ensure IEP goals are appropriate, supported, and being met; changes are made to the IEP plan as necessary.
Consultation
Parents:
Phone calls, individual meetings, making resources available.
Teachers:
Educate and provide training to help meet needs of unique student population.
Defining Features
Diagnosis
ASD symptoms are typically visible by age 3, but can present as early as 18 months.
symptoms typically peak at age 8 and can vary for each individual.
To meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for autism, children will display:
impairment in social interaction in at least 2 ways
impairment in communication in at least 1 way
restricted, repetitive and stereotypical patterns of behavior, interests, and activities in at least 1 way
Interventions
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Encourage positive behaviors and ignore negative behaviors in order to achieve the preferred behavior.
IE: sitting in seat.
Cognitive Behavioral Modification (CBM)
Encourage independent functioning, which is achieved through self-regulation and self-talk in order to achieve control over one’s behavior, regardless of external and/or environmental factors,
IE: counting to 10 to gain self-control.
Social Stories & Visual Cues
Effective for learning new behaviors and promoting desired responses to negative behaviors.
Pictures that prompt or promote teaching.
Useful in promoting independence, increasing appropriate social interactions, and decreasing negative behaviors
Educational Implications
Autistic children experience tremendous stress and anxiety due to their difficulties in social and emotional understanding.
Teachers experience difficulty educating students due to social deficit.
Inclusion
Pros-opportunity to learn in natural, stimulating environments, friendships to occur with non-handicapped peers, provides positive role models, and may lead to greater acceptance in the community. In addition, children without disabilities may benefit by learning about differences between people and by having the opportunity to assist others. Teachers may benefit by achieving a broader appreciation of differences and by learning new techniques for instruction.
Cons-May be unrealistic to expect that regular education teachers will always have the specific training required for this population, be aware of the latest research, or be able to readily adapt the school’s curriculum. In addition, children with special needs are sometimes assigned one-to-one aides who have little training or experience in autism or other developmental disabilities.
Separate special education classrooms or specialized schools available.
Ariel Guttenplan
History
1943: based on a study of 11 socially withdrawn children, Leo Kanner identifies autism as "lack of affective contact, fascination with objects, desire for sameness and non-communicative language before 30 months of age."
1944: Hans Asperger describes a "milder" form of autism, known as Asperger's syndrome
1965: Autism Society of America, one of the first advocacy groups for parents of children with autism.
1971: "refrigerator mother" theory, which holds that "cold," unnurturing parents, especially moms, are to blame for autism.
2004: The Institute of Medicine finds no true link between vaccines and autism.
2006: Combating Autism Act (CAA) was created to identify research needs for the ASD population.
What is it?
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disability that ranges in severity among different individuals.
The term “spectrum” is crucial to understanding autism, because of the wide range of intensity, symptoms and behaviors, types of disorders, and individual variation.
Children may be non-verbal and asocial, as in the case of many with “classic” autism. On the other end of the spectrum are children with average or above-average vocabularies that may reach speech milestones at the same time as children in the general population.
In the DSM-IV, these diagnostic categories are outlined under the heading of “Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs).
Children with autism may display some or many of the characteristics noted below. They may have severe forms or mild impairments related to these characteristics.

Social Interaction Impairments:
poor eye contact, lack of facial expressions, difficulty forming relationships with peers, uninterested in sharing experiences, resistance to being touched
Speech, Language, and Communication Impairments:
difficulty with: communicating with speech or gestures, starting or using conversation, using his own sentences (tends to repeat what others say), pretend play skills
Stereotyped or Repetitive Behavior:
interest in very few objects or activities and play with them in repetitive ways, repetitive routines/movements, difficulty with changes in routine
quiet area”—small and contained, that includes padding and a curtain that can darken the space and provide privacy, which is important to self-calming
Assist in development of behavior plan
Create and implement visual cues into a student’s daily routine, and develop unique social stories to meet the needs of an ASD student.
Advocacy
Psychoeducation can address diversity, differences, and bullying.
Ensure safe and respectful school environment
Help students with ASD overcome anxiety through individual and group counseling.
Bullying issues
Intervene and advocate on behalf of the students
Career counseling
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation Services (DVRS) provides employment services to working- age individuals with disabilities.
School Counselor Implications
References
Autism Research Institute. (2006). What is autism?. Retrieved from http://amraradoncic.com/what-is-autism/

Cavanaugh, Carli M., "Teachers Perceptions of Interventions for Children with Autism in a School Setting" (2012). Counselor
Education Master's Theses. Paper 122.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders. Retrieved from website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html

National Autism Center. (2013). Inclusion. Retrieved from http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/learning/inclusion.php

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2011). A parent's guide to autism spectrum disorder (NIH Publication No. 11-5511). Retrieved from website: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/a-parents-guide-to-autism-spectrum-disorder/index.shtml
1. ________ will develop social understanding skills as measured by the benchmarks listed below.
a. _____ will raise their hand and wait to be called on before talking aloud in group settings 4/5 opportunities to do so.
b. _____will work cooperatively with peers in small group settings (ie. Share materials, allow peers to share different thoughts) 4/5 opportunities to do so.
c. _____ will engage in appropriate cooperative social play interactions initiated by others 4/5 opportunities to do so
Sample IEP Goals
2. _____ will increase social communication skills as measured by the benchmarks listed below.
a. _____ will initiate communicative interactions with others 4/5 opportunities to do so.
b. _____ will initiate varied appropriate topics with others 4/5 opportunities to do so.
c. _____ will initiate communicative interactions with others by asking questions 4/5 opportunities to do so.
Strategies to focus on above Goals/ Objectives:
* Social Stories
* Comic Strip Conversations
* Social Scripting/ Computer Conversations (reduces social demands of situation)
* Find and use “hooks” (high interests )for academics, social relations, social communication, etc...
*Video-tapes
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