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Transcript of AP World
Why did the rise of food production develop at such varied times and geological places?
Why did some areas develop food production independently whereas other places were dependent on others ?
The production of food amongst humans developed at widely differing times due to geological differences. People in places nearby began to learn and evolve into farmers themselves, also in vastly varying times. As people slowly transitioned into the more advanced lifestyle, those who were primitive were driven to extinction. Even as everyone was progressing, the first humans to yield their own crops had the upper hand and hence they were further into the modern world than others.
Where did food production originate?
Change: As a result of people domesticating local plants and animals, the start for the Neolithic Revolution began. Even though the process was varied for different places, many hunters and gathers inevitably transitioned into/dominated by farmers.
Continuity: The people themselves didn't change, but rather their lifestyles did. It wasn't about genetics or IQ but about time and placement.
In order to figure out why different places progressed faster than others, we have to know where and when farming first began. That includes the origins of domesticated plants and animals.
"There's five places that developed food independently...
-Andes and Amazonia
Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapter 5: History's Haves and Have-Nots
Kayla Chang, Kevin Doodnauth, Jacky Lee, Brenda Torres
-At one point in history, "only a few areas of the world developed food production independently" (103) while others in separate areas were still hunters and gatherers. Eventually farming began to dominate the more primitive half. People either acclimated to the new behavior or were raided by farmers who were able "to outbreed the local hunters" (101).
-It's all based on the geological advantages that only few spots in the world provided. The leading clues for answering how and why some people progressed faster than others did not involve race or culture, but location, time, and also luck.
Change And Continuity
Other areas didn't develop crops by themselves. Instead the people relied on goods that were pre-domesticated and then imported from places nearby.
-The Indus Valley
As opposed to
- As many individuals started to settle down, they interacted with their environment by farming & domesticating wild animals and plants. Even before that, humans were hunting down their food and harvesting wild plants.
-In areas that had "independent origins of domestication", it was because of certain resources and climates that made it possible. It had nothing to do with the people themselves. For example, in SW Asia, local wildlife included wheat, peas, olive plants, sheep, and goats. They were lucky enough to encounter plants and animals that were easy to grow and cultivate. Those inhabitants learned to use their environments to their advantage and had a "head start" on the path leading toward guns, germs, and steel" (103).
Location & Luck
One way to figure out the first site and date of domesticated plants and animals can be determined by radiocarbon dating. (Which you can read about starting from page 95 :D)
The further away a region was from one of the "founding sites" for food production, the longer it took to actually transition from hunting to farming. It can be concluded that those areas were less advanced than places closer to somewhere like Mesoamerica. Exceptions include areas that don't have suitable climates such as deserts and tundras.
*Humans and the Environment*
*Humans and other Humans*
-As people could not communicate with others other than with gestures and speech, humans had to physically meet other humans for any sort of interaction. In this case, people traded and cooperated with one another. Less friendly actions include fighting and killing off each other.
In the SW Asia, people were capable of producing food independently, so they had a huge advantage over other locations. They were the one of first and thereby the most advanced. In Western and Central Europe, people "[adopted] founder crops"(101) from SW Asia which acted as the kick-start of farming there. As a result, Europeans "domesticated the poppy" (101) which "spread eastward as a crop" (101). In that way, agriculture was branching out to other areas, progressing more into other places that are farther and farther away from the original source.