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Agrarian Reform in the Philippine Republic

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on 1 February 2015

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Transcript of Agrarian Reform in the Philippine Republic

Agrarian Reform
The Philippine Republic

Ramon Del Fierro Magsaysay
December 30, 1953-March 17, 1957
Elpidio Rivera Aquino
(April 17, 1948- November 10, 1953)
Manuel Acuna Roxas
( May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948)
Carlos Polístico García
(March 18, 1957- December 30, 1961.)
The fifth President of the Philippines and the Last President of the Commonwealth (May 28, 1946- July 4, 1946) and the first of the sovereign Third Philippine Republic. Manuel Roxas' term as the President of the Commonwealth ended on the morning of 4 July 1946, when the Third Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated and independence from the United States proclaimed.
Pres. Manuel A. Roxas
The seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines, serving from December 30, 1953 until his death in a 1957 aircraft accident.
An automobile mechanic, Magsaysay was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as a guerilla leader during the Pacific War. He then served two terms as Liberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Elpidio Quirino. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He was the first Philippine President born during the 20th century.
Pres. Ramon Magsaysay
Republic Act no. 1160 (1954):
This law provided with the free distribution, resettlement and rehabilitation of agricultural lands. It abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation administration (NARRA) instead.
Republic Act no. 1199:
also known as Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954. This law governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share tenancy and leasehold system. This helped protect the tenural rights of tenant tillers and enforced fair tenancy practices. This law also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.
Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program..
A Filipino politician and the sixth President of the Philippines. Second President of the Third Philippine Republic.
A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as Senator from 1925–1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine Independence Commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of  Tydings-mcduffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newly established Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary of the Interior And Finance under Quezon's cabinet.
Pres. Elpidio R. Quirino
What were the key accomplishments
during Roxas' Administration?
Republic Act no. 34:
This law established 70-30 sharing arrangement and regulated share tenancy contracts.
Republic Act no. 55:
This law provided for a more effective safeguard against arbitrary ejectment of tenants.
What was the major program of the Quirino Administration regarding Agrarian Reform?
Executive Order No. 355

(October 23,1950):
This law replaced the National Land Resettlement Administration (NLSA) with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO). It took over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation (AMEC) and the Rice and Corn Production Administration (RCPA). the LASEDECO was established to accelerate and expand the present program of the government.
(January 1, 1892 –April 15,1948)
(November 16, 1890 –February 29, 1956)
(August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957)
Republic Act no. 1400
:
Otherwise known as Land Reform Act of 1955 or Land to the Landless Program. This law created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations.
Republic Act no. 821
: This law created the Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA). This government’s financing arm provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of 6 to 8 percent per annum.
Republic Act no. 1266
: This law provided for the expropriation of Hacienda del Rosario, situated at Valdefuente, Cabanatuan City.
Pres. Carlos P. Garcia
(November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971)
A Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader.
The eighth President of the Philippines serving from March 18, 1957- December 30, 1961.
He merely continued to implement the land Reform Program previously implemented by Pres. Ramon Magsaysay. His government focused on promoting local bussiness through his Filipino First Policy and in saving much- needed funds with his Austerity Programs, putting controls on junkets and imports.
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal
December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965
Pres. Diosdado Macapagal
(September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997)
The ninth President of the Philippines, serving from December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961.
He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who was the fourteenth President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.
Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country's first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls.
. He is also known for shifting the country's observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day President Emilio Aguinaldo unilaterally declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic from the Spanish Empire in 1898.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3844 OF AUGUST 8, 1963: also known as the Agricultural Land Reform Code. This law abolished share tenancy and institutionalized the leasehold system. This law also set the retention limit at 75 hectares. This law instituted the right of preemption and the right of redemption for tenant farmers. It also provided administrative machinery for the full implementation of the law. The law institutionalized a judicial system of agrarian cases and incorporated extension, marketing and supervised credit system of services for the farmer beneficiaries.

Macapagal on Agrarian Reform:
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3844 OF AUGUST 8, 1963
: also known as the Agricultural Land Reform Code. This law abolished share tenancy and institutionalized the leasehold system. This law also set the retention limit at 75 hectares. This law instituted
the
right of preemption

and the
right of redemption
for tenant farmers. It also provided administrative machinery for the full implementation of the law. The law institutionalized a judicial system of agrarian cases and incorporated extension, marketing and supervised credit system of services for the farmer beneficiaries.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. 
(December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986)
Pres. Ferdinand Marcos
(September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989)
A Filipino lawyer and politician who served as President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986 and to the making of People Power Revolution in February 1986.

Prior to the presidency, he served as a member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and of the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, where he was Senate President from 1963 to 1965.
Marcos' Accomplishments on Agrarian Reform Program:
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 2, SEPTEMBER 26, 1972:
by signing this law Marcos, declared the whole country under land reform program. It enjoined all agencies and offices of the government to extend full cooperation and assistance to the DAR for the implementation of the program. Marcos also activated the Agrarian Reform Coordinating Council.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 27, OCTOBER 21, 1972: :
This law restricted the scope of the land reform program to tenanted rice and corn lands, also set the retention limit at 7 hectares. The main goal of PD 27 is the “emancipation of the farmers from the bondage of the soil.” This was issued on October 21, 1972, a month after the declaration of martial law. This law nullifies leasehold in tenanted rice and corn land. The tiller automatically becomes the amortizing owner of the land he tills.
Coverage of PD 27:
The law covers all private tenanted agricultural land devoted to rice and corn in excess or seven (7) hectares. Priorities of coverage shall be: larger than 24 hectares, less than 24 but not below 12 hectares and 12 hectares less retention limits.
The beneficiaries of PD 27
Bona fide
tenant farmer of private agricultural land devoted to rice and corn are benefited with an economic size farm fixed at 3 hectares of irrigated lands and maximum of 5 hectares of non-irrigated.
Retention limit of PD 27
:
“Landowners may retain an area not more than 7 hectares.”

1. Letter of instruction 143 (Oct. 31, 1973):

Compels landowners
to transfer to their tenant, if determined by DAR to be an
absentee- farmer, with sources of income other than their holdings.

2. Letter of instruction 474 (Oct. 21, 1976)
: Provides the tenanted
areas of 7 hectares or less could be placed under PD 27, if the
owner owns other agricultural lands not devoted to rice and corn or
other lands used for industrial, residential or other urban purposes
from which they received adequate income to support themselves
and their families.

Mode of payments
: 15 years at 6% interest per annum. Payments may be through:
a.)
Bond payment over 10 years with 10 %
of the value of the land payable in cash and the balance
in the form of LBP bonds.
b.)
Direct payment of cash or kind by the farmer- beneficiaries with the terms to be mutually agreed upon by the beneficiaries and landowners and subject to the approval of DAR.
c.)

Other modes of payment as may be prescribed and approved by the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC).


Certificate of land transfer (CLT):
*To expedite such distribution the secretary of Agrarian Reform was empowered to sign and issue Certificate
of Land Transfer (CLT) in the name and on behalf of the President.

Stages of Operation of Land Transfer
1.)
Issuance of the Certificate of Land Transfer (CLT) to the tenant- farmers.

2.)
Issuance of Emancipation Patent (EP) as proof of full ownership of landholding upon complete payment of annual amortization.

Nature of the CLT
-The CLT serves as the tenant farmer’s provisional title of ownership pending the full payment of the value of the land, or as long as he is the amortizing owner.

Transferability of Title to Land under PD 27

-Land acquired under PD 27
cannot be disposed of freely, except when transferred to the government or by hereditary succession to the heirs of the tenant- farmer beneficiary.
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