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Chapter 9+10= 21
Transcript of Chapter 9+10= 21
Quick Recap Video:
In 1453, the Ottoman Turks were able to conquer the city of Constantinople, the capital of the byzantine empire, ending the Byzantine Empire with the help of the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II. The ottoman Turks made Constantinople the capital of their new empire, eventually changing it's name to Istanbul. From Istanbul, they moved outward, building an empire that would remain until the early 1900s.
Between the years in 1400 A,D. and 1800 A.D. there were 3 important Muslim empires that emerged from Eastern Europe. Using their powerful armies, these empires were able to conquer vast stretches of territory. These muslim empires helped to strengthen Islam in the lands they controlled and brought stability and economic growth.
Muslims Throughout the Centuries
Chapter 9+10 (21)
The Muslim Empires
Marya Prado, Destinee Everett-Scott, Andrea Uzategui & Ivy Molina
A State geared to Warfare
Throughout the centuries in the Muslim empire era, there were 3 different empires.
* Ottoman Empire
* Safavid Dynasty
* Mughal Empire
For many decades in history before the Ottoman dynasty, Turkic speaking peoples from central Asia Played Many key roles in Islamic civilizations as soldiers and administrators and it was used in the service of the Abbasid caliphs.
The Ottomans seize to get control in their own right right after the collapse of the Seljuk Turkic Kingdom of Ron in Eastern Anatolia in Asia Minor after the invasions of the Mongols in 1243 .
The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I, a leader of the Turkish in Anatolia in 1299. Osman I expanded his kingdom uniting many of the independent states of Anatolia under one rule. Osman established a formal government and allowed for religious tolerance over the people he conquered. His followers were a group of Turks who called themselves the "Ottoman Turks".
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the ottomans build an empire in the eastern Mediterranean that rivaled the Abbasid imperium at its height. Though the Ottomans patterned much of their empire on the ideas and institution of earlier Muslim civilizations, in warfare, architecture and engineering they carried islamic civilizations to new levels of attainment.
What were the Ottomans?
What was so important about them?
Who Mehmed II?
Military leaders played a dominant role in the Ottoman state and the economy of the empire was geared to warfare and expansion. From the mid-15th century, the imperial armies were increasingly dominated by infantry divisions made up of troops called "Janissaries". MAny of the Janissaries had been forcibly recruited a adolescent boys in conquered areas, such as the Balkans, where the majority of the population retained it's christian faith,
Who are the Janissaries?
What was their role?
The Ottoman Empire was like most Muslim empires of the time; it was a "gunpowder empire". The empires success largely based on the mastery of the technology of firearms.
The sultans were the head of empire. The sultans were the supreme authorities in both political and military senses.
The position of the Sulatans was hereditary. A son always succeeded the father.
Many deaths among family memebers took place because of this.
In the late 1500's, the Ottoman Empire started going into a serious decline as a result of both internal and external factors. 3 important factors that caused the decline were, Suleiman's death, 2nd the Janissaries became a virtual hereditary caste, demanding inreasingly more pay while they also grew soft and lazy. Finally, the size of empire created problems.
Safavid dynasty arose
In the 1st years of the 16th century, the safavid founded a dynasty that conquered what is now Iran. The Safavid dynasty arose from the struggles of rival Turkic nomadic groups in the wake of the Mongol and Timurid invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries. Sail al-Din began to campaign to purify Islam and was the first member of the Safavid Dynasty. In the chaos that followed the collapse of Mongol authority in the mid 14th century, Sail al-Din and other Safavid Sufi leaders gained increasing support. but then the number of Red Heads ( red heads; was a name given to the Safavid followers because of their distinctive redheadgear.) After decades of fierce local struggles in which 3 successive Safavid leaders perished, a surviving Sufi commander, Isma il, led his turkic followers to a string of victories on the battlefield. He was a sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501 and was the first safavid to be proclaimed as shah or emperor.
Beginning the next decade, Isma il followers conquered most of Persia, drove the Safavids ancient enemies, the ozbegs, a neighboring nomadic people of turkic stock. The Safavid successes peoples brought them into conflict with ottoman rulers. Ingust 1514, at Chaldiran in northwest Persia, armies of the 2 empires met inone of the most fateful battles in Islamic history. Chaldiran was more than a battle vetween the two most powerful dyies in the lslamic world at th time. it was a clash between the champions of the Shi'a and Sunni variants of Islam. Chaldiran was a site batle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514ñ Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans checked western adavnce of Safavid Empire.
Politics and War under The Safavid Shas
After his defeat at Chaldiran, Isma il once a courages warrior and a popular leader retreated to his palace and tried to escape his torubles through drink. Under Shah I, the empire reached the height of its strength and prosperity, although the territories it controlled remained roughly equivalent to those ruled by Isma il and Tahmasp I. Under Tahmasp I and his succeessors, repeated efforts were made to bring the Turkic chiefs under control. Thwere gradually transformed into a warrior nobility comparable to that in the Ottoman domains. Abbas known also Abbas the great made most extensive use of the youths who were captured in Russia and then educated and converted to Islam. Abbas te great was Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629 and extended Safavid domain to greatest extent which created slave regiments based on captured Russians who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies. IT incorporated Western military technology.
State and Religion
Church and state are kept separate in most places because of the vast diversity that religion gives us. In Iran and Iraq right now, this same thing is going on. Iran and Iraq both are still Shiite Muslims and also Sunni Muslim. The church and state are no longer connected, and instead, the religion that the Safavid Empire once held above everything else is being tampered by the government.
During the Safavid dynasty, religion was tied in with the government and the ruler. This state religion was Shi'ism, and they were mostly all very pious and devoted to Shi'ism. This is very different from any of their Islamic neighbors, many of them were Sunni Muslims. Both are a branch of the Islamic religion, but they were quite different. The ruler, also known as a Shah, was said to be a semidivine person and was also thought to be a direct descendant from the prophet Muhammad. This tie of state and religion will lead to problems in the future for the Safavid Empire.
Chapter 21: The Muslim Empires
Explain the new norm in th middle east and India, and detail how this is differen than anything that has happened in the region previously.
In the 1st centuries of Mughal rule in India, Islam reached the peak of its influence a political and cultural force in south Asian History. Under th Mughal emperors a blend of Hindu and Islamic civilizations produced some of the worlds most sublime architecture and art.
The founder of the Mughal dynasty was Babur.
babur was a remarkable man, fine military strategist and fierce fighter who went into battle alongside his troops. He descended from Turkic warriors and first led invasion of Indi in 1526.
he was a better conqueror than administrator. Babur did little to reform the very ineffective lodi bureaucracy he had taken over, a project that would have solidified the Mughals hold on empire he had conquered.
1530: at the age of 48 he suddenly fell ill and died, leaving his son HUMAYAN to inherit the newly founded kingdom.
Humayan was a good solider but in 1540 with armies shattered, HUmayan was forced to flee to Persia.There he remained in exile, an embarrassed guest at the Safavid court, for nearly a decade. Having gained a foothold at bul in 1545, Humayan launched a series of campaigns into India that resored Mughal rule to the northern plains by 1556.
Humayan died after shortly entering Delhi in triumph he was hurrying down his libraary steps, his arms full of books to answer the call to prayer. He tripped and fell hitting his head was bleeding to death. His son. akbar was a successor of Humayan and ovrsaw building of military and administractive systems that beca me typical of Mughal rule in india. He pursued policy of cooperation with hindu princes which attempted to create new religion to bind muslim and hindu populations of India.
Decline of Mughal
The period of the Great Mughals, which began in 1526 with Babur’s accession to the throne, ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Aurangzeb’s death marked the end of an era in Indian history. When Aurangzeb died, the empire of the Mughals was the largest in India. Yet, within about fifty years of his death, the Mughal Empire disintegrated.
Aurangzeb’s death was followed by a war of succession among his three sons. It ended in the victory of the eldest brother, Prince Muazzam. The sixty five-year-old prince ascended the throne under the name of Bahadur Shah.
Almost the end....
As a whole class you will be paired up into groups to play Jeopardy.!!
You have 3 min. to prepare with your group name and group members.
You may use your books and notes throughout the Game.