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4th anthropological Constant: Relating with Culture and Hist
Transcript of 4th anthropological Constant: Relating with Culture and Hist
Culture is made up of
- system of beliefs (religion)
- values (right and wrong)/ customs (behavior)
Institution ( government, church, schools) that expresses the beliefs/values/customs which connects the society and gives it identity, dignity, security, and continuity
Introduction to "See"
“ Our relationship with culture and history is an integral part of our becoming fully human. We do not merely have a culture. We are products of our culture: we are cultural and historical beings. Our culture and historical roots are threatened by globalization. The world is becoming one market of consumer goods controlled by the few powerful nations of the world”
“ Whenever human life is involved, therefore, nature and culture and quite intimately connected”
(Ganadium et Spes, 53).
- we share commonalities with the past generation(stories) and we are products of them
-we carry on these past stories and pass them to the future.
- Spanish and American colonizers wrote our Filipino history both in real life and through texts
-This led to failure of appreciation for our history.
-Critical studies about our history were made in the past by Filipino historians. These gave us an understanding that the colonizers wrote our stories for their benefit.
-We will develop a sense of critical consciousness once we are in touch with these studies.
-Awareness of both the greatness of the history and the alienating elements of the Philippines
A. The Reality of Filipino Culture and History
Culture- guidelines of our lives
Developed by society through the course of time
- tackles everything in human life
1) History and Historical Consciousness
- totality of the search for conditions that facilitate’s humanity’s full growth
- the nation or the people’s development to their full potential
- in order to achieve this development, the people themselves should be involved. They should act to achieve their own destiny.
-No self determination/ deprivation to write one’s history
- suppression of native wisdom and talents
-commonly found in the phenomenon of colnization
The Second Vatican council (1962) acknowledges culture as an important part of human life.
“ It is a fact bearing on the very persons of human beings that they come to an authentic and full humanity only through culture: that is, through a cultivation of natural goods and values”
Filipino Cultural Values
- could also mean entrusting the situation to God. ( taken from the word “Bathala”
- “Bahala na” could also mean courage despite of facing adversity. An aggressive factor that makes us act decisvely.
2) Cultural and Identity Crisis
Due to colonial mentality, the Filipinos are the most westernized among Asians.
Belief to follow Western fads such as attire, music, looks, etc.
A lot of Filipinos would want to go abroad due to lack of hope in their own country.
Despite of this, we cannot neglect our culture. Terisita Obusan stated that neglecting one culture “ is tantamount to turning away from our racial soul, a form of moral suicide”.
These values are ambivalent, meaning can be positive and also negative.
a. Bahala na
- come what may (hard situations). An impersonal force called “kapalaran” predicts our fate.
- could also mean a huge trust in life and belief that one can make it through
- inner self that consists of one’s intellect, volitions, emotions, and ethics
- holistic approach to life
- composes of clemency, leniency, benevolence, and tolerance
- utang na loob- an inner construct of a person that one should act generously to the giver of help
- “shyness”, “timidity”, “modesty” and “embarrassment” as defined by social studies
- takes place when we are placed in situations that elicits inadequacy, failure, or mistake.
- causes feelings of hurt when put to shame (napahiya)
-can also mean reluctance/scapegoat in carrying out orders/responsibility
According to research, Filipinos are more likely to sense shame as compared to guilt. Therefore we show more importance to the embarrassment that we cause as compared to the morality of the wrong we do.
Hiya is also can be related to pakikipagkapwa
- derived from the value of pakikipagkapwa tao. A feeling of wanting to be treated equal much like others.
- the level of pakikisama lessens when it hurts the individual and community.
Bayanihan, pakikisama kapwa
harmony, unity, peace, and cooperation
We harmonize our goals in relation to others in order to establish relationships (Markus & Kitayama)
Utang na loob can easily be manipulated and enslaving.
More than “dept of gratitude”. Mercado stated that we cannot separate utang na loob from loob.
Debt of human solidarity. Focuses on respect and responsibility for humanitarian growth.
Introduction to "Discern"
It is important to reconnect and recognize the rich heritage and culture of the Philippines and the Christian values they can entail
OUR RESPONSIBILITY AS CHRISTIANS OF OUR NATION
The Jews have believed that God has been with them throughout their journey and that they are his followers. In both parts, each have a responsibility (with the Jews following God and with God guiding them).
The guidance of God made Israel an ideal nation, but leaders who were rich in power would oppress. God would accuse those In power to leading astray people. Jesus also died believing that the kingdom of God would have peace, prosperity and joy.
Despite the success of the EDSA Revolution, our country needs to do more; the prophets say that in times of danger, there are times of opportunities. Our dependence from foreign nations and our colonial mentality are some of the barriers preventing us from liberation. By knowing our cultural heritage and history of our culture, we can improve the way we identify ourselves as a Filipino people.
Being the only Christian nation in South East Asia, our country must express the kingdom of God and take up those responsibilities as a Christian nation. When EDSA I happened, we showed the world that we could make create our own milestones and liberated ourselves from dictatorship and stood up as a nation.
FILIPINO CULTURE ON THE CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE
By allowing Jesus to be our disciple in his teachings, we will relate our cultural beliefs and values towards following him
Bahala na (Christian context) – This does not only mean leaving things to chance or giving up. In Jesus’ words, it means : “I will be with you always”. In the Christian perspective, it involves living in faith, overcoming fears and helping those around us. With this understanding, we can understand more our responsibility towards the environment and those around it and how our faith works in different situations.
Bahala na (Christian context) – The faith in Christianity is basically a risk. We have to believe and do about with our commitments with trusting in God’s will power, courage and trust to conquer these ambitions with the power of God.
It is true that God’s will is active and dynamic. Because we know that behind every situation and hardships in life is a caring, merciful God who is not wrong, is leading us to the right path and trusts us.
Bahala na (Christian context) – By putting our trust in God, we are welcome to a life that meaningful and good. By committing to the common good, we do not break God’s trust. When we say “bahala na”, there is deep confidence and loyalty of faith towards God.
Hiya (Christina context) – Hiya involves being sensitive to others and understanding the ethics of God’s kingdom. It is sometimes looked down on when people do not speak. Basically, they feel hiya (or shame) when they seek to avoid unwanted attention. More than just a cultural act, hiya is also spiritual sensitivity that entails forthrightness, courage, honesty and being responsible.
The Christian sense of hiya must exhibit the standards of the Bible; this would result in our personal growth as Christians and to the community as well.
Utang na loob (Christian context) – There have been many definitions and interpretations of the word “loob” – be it physically or internally. The classic perception of utang na loob in the Filipino context involves the give and take concept wherein when a person does somebody good, the receiver of the action is expected to return the favor
Jesus had the kagandahan ng loob – a relational concept that can translate to kindness, goodness, kindheartedness, benevolence, helpfulness and generosity.
Kagandahan ng loob can only be measured by a person’s relationship to others and cannot be seen in isolation. We have to be human with others and for others.
Utang na loob (Christian context) – It should be free and authentic, not forced or manipulated. It is a genuine and free decision.
It is also directed to others and their well-being. It does not expect anything in return and it’s concern is to reach out to the other.
Utang na loob (Christian context) – Jesus is the perfect example of a person with kagandahan ng loob. He defied race, class and religion to help those who were in need and did not expect anything in return.
When we do acts like charity and helpful services, we do good deeds that cannot be doubted.
Pakikiasama (Christina context) – According to the Old Testament, there is nothing wrong with socializing or joining other people, but rather being with the right people.
“Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, or stand in the way of sinners or sit in the seat of mockers:
Pakikiasama (Christina context) – Jesus joines outcasts who were sick, children, tax collectors, samaritans, etc… He joined them so that he could give hope and good reasons for living; something that leaders did not do.
The pakikisama Jesus did was non compromising and genuine. He reached out towards the weak and marginalized and was captivating.
Pakikiasama (Christina context) – Paul emphasized the importance of honesty in the Church in terms of the pakikisama aspect. Rivalries in leadership, rights, positions, discrimination, social status and gossip. He stated that it was important to “Carry each other’s burdens and fulfill the Law of Christ” and to “Live a life worthy of the calling you received.”
Pakikiasama (Christina context) – In terms of pakikisama, we have to let others know that they should do good and be responsible for what they do with sincerity. It is the genuine concern for everybody’s good.
Pakikisama for the Filipino context involves being with others, but being insecure and attention-seeking. This was true to some Pharisees presented by the gospels because they knew faith, but had limited acceptance and understanding toward other people. A concern that still happens nowadays. True pakikisama involves helping others and being supportive; having concern.
Pakikiasama (Christina context) – We must practice this culture and behavior on principles that promote cooperation and helping; not convenience or superficial unity or avoiding negative feelings.
We aim for potential goodness and being Christ-like. Pakikisama should bring us closer together and to Jesus as Christians of our country.
To remove “Bahala na” habit
SELF- To watch the news about how our fellow people are doing
To join volunteer groups that help others
As a GROUP- to encourage others to join the cause of the group
As a CHRISTIAN- to join works of charity in the name of God
Utang na loob
Self- Respecting the other’s rights and giving back what you owe the person
As a Group- To help the community by doing community service.
As a Christian- To know that you owe God your life and everything you own, and that offering up all your actions in his name
Self- To remember that your actions affect other people
As a Group- to know that a group’s action are influential to other groups, like a group doing a community service, other groups will also join
As a Christian- having the knowledge that God is always watching, we should be scared to do any form of sin
Self- Respecting others, engaging others in different activities, sharing your blessings and times to others
As a Group- To join other groups and cooperating with them in
As a Christian- To respect others’ beliefs
Canonizado, De Leon, Dy, Galang, Navarro, Tanyag, Teves.