Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Copy of Research Group 2

No description

Patrick Obichere

on 30 July 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of Research Group 2

Research Group 2




Jason Parks
Balogun Mayowa
What are Prairie Plants?
Common Name/Scientific Names
According to M. Ray Tucker, 1999 & Jeff Schalau, 2008;
- Plants need 18 elements for normal growth

According to James Schultz, In 1931, Albert-Szent-Gyorgi discovered the chemical ascorbic acid known as Vitamin C
The Production Of Chlorophyll
According to Raven Johnson & Losos Mason Singer 2008, Chlorophyll is a molecule inside the leafs of the plant
2 Chlorophyll's A&B
Chlorophyll A- the main pigment that acts directly to light
Chlorophyll B- absorb photons
Main Nutrients for Chlorophyll
Iron -Required for the formation of chlorophyll in plants
Zinc-Necessary for Chlorophyll
Manganese-Aids in Chlorophyll
Without these nutrients there would be a major problem with Chlorophyll production which would alter the photosynthetic process.
Effects of ozone on Chlorophyll
It was discovered in our research that;
plants in all shaded areas of the prairie garden consisted of a higher level of Vitamin C then the ones that were in the sunny and partly shaded areas.
USTEP 2014
Main Function of Vitamin C in Plants
Protection against Ozone-removes free radicals
Protection against U-v rays (destroys the DNA of the plant)
If there is no vitamin C within the plant, U-V rays enter the plant cell
Disrupts and destroys major plant structure
How does a plant use Vitamin C?
According to Nicholas Smirnoff
Acts as a antioxidant by removing free radicals
Co factor for enzymes, essential role in physiological processes.
Originates throughout the plant
This process occurs throughout the plant stems/leaves
Development of Vitamin C
As our group repeated the experiment it was found that the procedure would have worked best if we:
use distilled water to clean each plant
collected plants of the same species
Consider the temperature
The calculations indicated a fluctuation of Vitamin C content present in each prairie garden plant.
These findings could be due to various characteristics such as;
the location
exposure to sunlight
soil reaction
adaptive habitat
deep-root system
The initial thinking was that prairie garden plants will consist of Vitamin C.
As well as have a specific amount of Vitamin C content.
Testing each prairie garden plant selected based on location, it was found that all the plants did have Vitamin C and in specific amounts based on quantitative calculation.
According to Christopher Coulson & Robert Heath ozone disrupts the normal flow of electrons between Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is not able to get sunlight, to convert solar energy to chemical energy
Photosynthesis slows down, resulting in slow plant production.
According to Shearer, Benjamin F. and Barbara S;
Prairie Plants are adapted to the open sun and winds of the plains. These plants are further classified into; dry prairie mesic prairie wet prairie.
Curly Dock - Rumex crispus L.
Prairie Cone Flowers - Ratibida columnifera
Bitter Dock - Rumex obtusifolius
Wild Bergamont - Monarda fistulosa
Purple Cone - Echinacea purpurea
Wild Geranium - Geranium maculatum
Common Yarrow - Achillea millefoliumm L.
Common Milkweed - Asclepias cornuti
Black-Eyed Susan - Rudbeckia hirta
Corn Chamomile - Anthemis arvensis
Wild-Sorrel - Oxalis acetosella
Ladys Thumb - Polygonum persicaria L.
Grass Leaved Orache - atriplex littoralis litoralis
Red Canary Grass - Phalaris arundinacea
Factors That Affect the Growth of Prairie Plants
According to Bjorkman, there are several components that are key factors in the growth and development of prairie plants.
Adequate water
Adequate sunlight
Soil pH
Soil nutrients (Macro and Micro nutrients)
2% Iodine Solution
Corn Starch
250mL of water
Eye dropper
Measurin Spoon
14 different prairie plans Samples
1 tablespoon of corn starch
250ml of boiling water. Once the paste was formed,
10 drops of starch solution was added to 75ml of water.
Iodine was then added to produce a dark purple or blue color, which will serve as the indicator.
Take the indicator and add 5ml or 1 teaspoon of indicator put it in a 15ml test tube (1 test tube for each sample).
Now add 10 drops of each extracted and filtered prairie plant to the iodine and starch based indicator.
Experimental Procedure
Experimental Procedure
Recommendation & Application
It was discovered in our research that
plants in the sunny areas of the prairie garden consisted of a higher level of Vitamin C then the ones that were in the shaded and partly shaded areas.
Types of Prairies
Dry prairie
This is a natural plant community of low shrubs and grasses occupying vast, level expanses of land. Dry prairies are notable for their lack of trees
Wet Prairie
Wet prairie is a native lowland grassland occurring on level, saturated and/or seasonally inundated stream and river floodplains, lake margins. Soils are primarily loam or silt loam of neutral pH and have high organic content.
Mesic Prairie
Mesic prairie is a native grassland community dominated sandy loam or silt loam soils on level or slightly undulating glacial outwash.
According to F.W. Went light has three principal characteristics that affect plant growth: quantity, quality, and duration.
F.W. Went also said, Plants produce maximum growth when exposed to a day temperature that is about 10 to 15° F. (5.5 to 8°C) higher than the night temperature. This allows the plant to photosynthesize and respire during an optimum daytime temperature and to curtail the rate of respiration during a cooler night.
Air and Water
Carbon - Carbon is essential in photosynthesis (the chemical reaction that plants use to create energy).
Hydrogen - plants need the hydrogen obtained from water molecules through photosynthesis.
Oxygen - Oxygen in plants is for absorption of nutrients across the cell walls and roots.
Nitrogen - It is important for protein production.
Phosphorus - transfer of genetic characteristics from one generation to the next.
Potassium - builds cellulose and reduces lodging.
Macro Nutrients
Magnesium - is the central element of the chlorophyll molecule and Nutrient uptake control.
Calcium - Starch metabolism, proper cell division, elongation and proper cell wall development.
Sulfur - Active in the conversion of inorganic N into protein.
Macro Nutrients
Iron - plays a role in energy transfer within the plant (chlorophyll).
Zinc - Production of Auxins, an essential growth hormone.
Molybdenum - It functions in converting nitrates (NO3) into amino acids within the plant.
Nickel - essential for activation of urease, can substitute for Zinc and Iron as a cofactor in some enzymes.
Manganese - It functions in the formation of riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and carotene.
Boron - Maintains a balance between sugar and starch.
Micro Nutrients
Macronutrients are usually less available in soils with low pH.

Micronutrients are usually less available in soils with high pH

Soil PH
The effect of global warming on plants is caused by rising land and water temperatures.
Climate Change
Vitamin C
According to Medical students at Depaul University,Vitamin C helps plants and humans.

In humans Vitamin C influences the body in a variety of ways. The 3 most noted functions are:

Collagen synthesis (protects skin from U-V damage caused by free radicals)
Immune system (helps to reduce the duration of the common cold)
Cardiovascular system
Photosynthesis Process
Micro Nutrients
Copper - is important in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Cobalt - fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into amino acids and proteins.
Chlorine - It functions in cation balance and transport within the plant.
It is expected that the prairie plants within the Midwestern prairie garden located
on a college campus will have relatively the same amount of Vitamin C content
regardless of exposure to sunlight due to it's adaptive nature and deep root system.
2% Iodine Solution
Corn Starch
250mL of water
Eye dropper
Measuring Spoon
This experiment was conducted to determine and measure the accumulation of Vitamin C in prairie garden plants.
According to Radinsky. L.
A Prairie is a well balanced community of wildflowers, grasses, insects, and other animals. This is a habitat that is conspicuous by its lack of trees. They are very adaptive to harsh conditions such as extremely cold winters and hot summers; fires and drying winds.
14 different prairie plant samples
1 tablespoon of corn starch
250mL of boiling water. Once the paste was formed.
10 drops of starch solution was added to 75 of water
Iodine was then added to produce a dark purple or blue color, which will serve as the indicator.
Take the indicator and add 5mL or 1 teaspoon of indicator. Put it in a 15 mL test tube (1 test tube for each sample).
Now add 10 drops of each extracted and filtered prairie plant to the iodine and starch based indicator.
According to Marion Bliss;2003
A high level of Vitamin C content is necessary for plants in sunny areas for protection against ozone and U-V radiation during the photosynthesis process.
Vitamin C and Chlorophyll
Vitamin C protects the plant from ozone allowing Chlorophyll to function properly.
Discovery Of Vitamin C
Converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
Breaks down carbon dioxide & water
Vitamin C has a major role in photosynthesis process
Full transcript