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Research Process

NU2335
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Roberta Millington

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Research Process

Are adults who have witnessed or been abused more likely to become abusers? By Roberta Sian Millington * Show how i have conducted an effective literature search to find two relevant research papers.

* Compare and contrast two research papers and discuss the findings.

* To demonstrate how my findings can influence future practice. Aim of presentation: One in seven young adults (14.5%) had been severely maltreated by a parent or guardian during childhood and Nearly one in four young adults (23.7%) were exposed to domestic violence between adults in their homes during childhood. (NSPCC 2012) Research process
NU2335 (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr The Research Process: 'This is the world's most comprehensive nursing & allied health research database, providing full text for more than 770 journals indexed in CINAHL®, including many of the most-used journals in the index' (EBSCO 2012) You then have to consider on what you are going to type into the search engine, and have to consider how to reduce your 'hits'. The Research Process: To see if i could reduce the amount of hits, i re-worded what i put into the search bar. The Research Process: 'A boolean search is a method of refining your quest by linking search terms with AND, OR, or NOT to better demonstrate the relationships between the words' (Tensen, 2007) The Research Process: By using a Boolean phrase i reduced the hits by over 6,000 which made it easier to find relevant research papers. To try and reduce further i selected the 'full text' option. This again reduced my hits by 9, making my total hits to 13. The Research Process: Before reading a full paper, you can read the abstract to see if the paper contains what you are looking for. The abstract will also give you an idea what the paper is about. The Research Process: The Research Process: 'Before any research planning or data collection takes place it is of central importance to ensure that you have adequately reviewed the literature relevant to your research question' (Barber 2004). The reason why i have chosen to use the American Psychological Association's guidelines to critique my research papers is now i know that they are all from a reliable source and that the information within them is valid. These Guidelines can be used for both qualitative and quantitative research papers. Introducing and Identifying research papers Research Paper One Critiquing Title, Abstract, & Introduction Procedures were used to safeguard the rights of study participants 'Approval for this study was obtained by the university’s institutional review board, and informed consent was acquired from participants.' (Rodriguez & Tucker 2011) The study was designed to minimizes the risk of mothers abusing their child.

A good design was used to collect data and there were substantial amount of data collection points.

The population was identified and described in enough detail. The sample size was adequate as enough data was collected and results were gained.

I feel that data was collected in a way that weren't biased, due to the fact that participants chose themselves if they wanted to do the study by contacting the university after seeing flyers around the university and health care settings. Critiquing the Methods Behind the Cycle of Violence, Beyond Abuse History: A Brief Report on the Association of Parental Attachment to Physical Child Abuse Potential The title covers what the article is going to cover. The abstract includes the papers methods, results and conclusions.

The problem is stated and easy to find 'Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent–child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior.' (Rodriguez & Tucker 2011)

The hypotheses is consistent throughout the paper & is worded clearly with key variables.

The paper is up to date and is all based on primary sources. Critiquing Results & Discussion Critiquing Global Issues Results were analyzed in different ways to address each research question and hypotheses . 'A series of t tests were initially performed to determine whether predictor and outcome measures differed relative to demographic characteristics to evaluate the need for statistical controls.' (Rodriguez & Tucker 2011)

I believe that the paper did use good tables and figures, however the tables were hard to read as many words were obviated. However, the written findings had all the essential results and information needed.

All findings in this study were discussed in context with the paper and its question. The discussion summarizes the results accordingly and compares its results with other papers.

The paper also discusses implications and how the study can be improved in the future. Research Paper Two The research paper is written and presented well and was detailed enough for critical analysis, making it easier for health care professionals to access the findings.

The researchers came across confident about there findings and i have confidence the paper is valid. Critiquing Title, Abstract, & Introduction Maternal Intergenerational Transmission of Childhood Multiple Maltreatment The paper summarizes the problem by saying 'Previous research suggests that child maltreatment is transmitted across familial generations. However, extant studies focused exclusively on single maltreatment subtypes, instead of the more common experience of multitype maltreatment.' (Cort and Toth 2011)

The papers hypotheses: Victims of child maltreatment are often subjected to multiple, co-occurring forms (i.e., neglect, sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) of maltreatment, referred to as multitype maltreatment. However, maltreatment researchers typically examine a typical single maltreatment experiences and therefore fail to cogently differentiate the effects of childhood multitype maltreatment on psychologicalhealth, interpersonal well-being, and the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment' (Cort et al. 2011). Critiquing Methods The paper states 'Caregivers provided informed consent and permission to access the Department of Human Services (DHS) registry to confirm maltreatment statuses.' (Cort and Toth 2011) by stating this is confirm that all participants have given consent to be included in the study and the legal framework has been applied

A good design was used to collect data and there were substantial amount of data collection points. The participants were identified and described when introduced to the method and the number of participants were a substantial amount to collect data from.

All data was valid and reliable. Critiquing Results & Discussion The paper gave detailed information about the findings, using both tables and analogue. Findings from this study can be used in the health care setting.


'Path analysis was used to simultaneously analyze direct and indirect effects between variables. Preliminary data screening indicated that the assumption of multivariate normality was met by the data.' (Cort and Toth 2011) This says the data was looked at by different aspects but the conclusion was pretty much always the same.


The study then continues with a conclusion of 'The study results suggest that there might be a need for further consideration of social policies addressing child maltreatment and IPV.' (Cort and toth 2011) Critiquing Global Issues This paper was well laid out and all the findings were accessible for health care professionals.



I feel confident that the search was conducted correctly and all the findings and results are reliable and valid. Both of my research papers showed ethical considerations, both papers told the participants what the method of research was and what was asked of them.

Both papers also didn't exclude any participants because of their religion, culture or finical circumstances.

At both research studies there were always health care professionals such as therapists and counselors there is needs be.

Each paper also stated that consent was gain of each participant and that nobody was forced to do the study.

All findings can be backed up to prevent any claims of fabrication and falsification. Ethical Considerations Conclusion I found it difficult to find relevant research papers at first, but by using frameworks such as American Psychological Association's guidelines i found it easier to understand and learnt what i was looking for in a research paper.

By doing this research i have learnt that there is need for more studies in this area. Both papers conducted a similar conclusion, but due to the sample sizes and other minor factors it isn't 100% certain that adults who have been abused as a child becomes and abuser.

Once more research has been done on this area, future practice can be improved by setting up group therapy sessions and counseling for adults who have been abused in their childhood. By setting up these practise's it can stop the cycle of abuse and violence. Bibliography American Psychological Association (1983). Publication Manual. 3rd ed. Hyattsville, APA.

Barber, G. (2004). Critically Reviewing the Literature. Available: http://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/millbrook/rsources/sealit/critical.htm. Last accessed 11 Oct 2012.

Cort, A and Toth, S. (2011). Maternal Intergenerational Transmission of Childhood Multitype Maltreatment. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. 20 (1), 19-38.

EBSCO Industries, Inc. (2012). CINAHL® Plus with Full Text. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/public/cinahl-plus-with-full-text. Last accessed 15th Oct 2012.

NSPCC. (2012). Prevalence and incidence of child abuse and neglect. Available: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/statistics/prevalence_and_incidence_of_child_abuse_and_neglect_wda48740.html. Last accessed 9th Oct 2012.

Rodriguez, C and Tucker, C. (2011). Behind the Cycle of Violence, Beyond Abuse History: A Brief Report on the Association of Parental Attachment to Physical Child Abuse Potential. Violence and Victims. 26 (1), 246-254.

Tensen, B (2010). Research Strategies for a Digital Age. 4th ed. Boston, USA: Wadsworth. 38. Compare
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