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Copy of Down's Syndrome SPED 223
Transcript of Copy of Down's Syndrome SPED 223
Down Syndrome What is
Down Syndrome? Labels
Down Syndrome Causes
Intervention Misconceptions References John Langdon Down English physician
First person to publish an accurate description of a person with Down syndrome in 1866 "Father of Down Syndrome" Jerome Lejeune French physician
First person to identify Down syndrome as a chromosomal condition in 1959 Down Syndrome Today In 2000, researchers identified and catalogued each of the approximately 329 genes on chromosome 21. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21.
The genetic material alters the course of development and causes the characteristics of Down syndrome. There are three different types of Down syndrome: Translocation Trisomy 21 and Mosaicism Use the words, "Individuals with Down syndrome," instead of, "Down syndrome individuals."
Do not refer to Down syndrome as a "disease," refer to it as a condition or syndrome.
Instead of saying, "He suffers from Down syndrome," say, "He has Down syndrome."
Refer to Down syndrome as an "intellectual disability" or "cognitive disability" instead of saying "mental retardation." Physical Traits Low muscle tone
Upward slant to eyes
Single deep crease across the center of the palm
Flat, wide nose Behavior Wandering & Running Off: Safety is important. Teachers, parents, and educational facilities can:
have good locks and alarms on doors
have a written plan in the IEP that regards safety precautions for the school
have visual supports such as a "STOP" sign on the door. Stubborn & Oppositional Behavior Non-compliant behavior can usually be triggered by different events.
This behavior can be the individual's way of communicating frustration or confusion.
When challenged with a difficult task, these children can become very good at distracting teachers or parents. Attention Problems Individuals with Down syndrome can have ADHD and should be evaluated for attention and impulsivity based on developmental age, and not just on chronological age.
They can also have anxiety disorders, language processing problems, and hearing loss which can lead to attention problems as well. Obsessive/Compulsive Behaviors OCD behaviors are more common in children with Down syndrome and usually have higher frequencies and intensities as well.
These behaviors could be sitting in the same chair or repetitive behaviors like playing with their hands when not directly involved in an activity.
Restlessness and worry could also lead the individual to behave compulsively. Autism Spectrum Disorder 5-7% of children with Down syndrome also have characteristics of autism. Cognitive Delays Infancy Delayed development of inhibitory processes in learning, sensory-motor cognition, and babbling
Fewer non-verbal requests
Slowed acquisition of spoken vocabulary Childhood Deficits in:
auditory short-term memory compared to mental age
communication skills related to daily living activities and socialization
emergence of spoken sentences
Omission of grammatical function words
Errors of sound Adolescence Deficits in working memory
Expressive language delay
Syntax comprehension has delays
Sentence structure is more delayed Additional Medical Problems Vision and hearing deficits
Gastro esophageal reflux
Anxiety The cause of Down syndrome is currently unknown. The cause of Down syndrome is currently unknown. Research has shown that women are more likely to have a child with Down syndrome the older they are.
A 35-year-old woman has a 1 in 350 chance of conceiving a child with Down syndrome.
A 45-year-old woman has a 1 in 30 chance. Genetics
Down syndrome is a genetic condition, but only 1% of all cases are hereditary. Prenatally Screening tests
Diagnostic tests Birth Physical characteristics In 1910, children with Down syndrome were only expected to live to be 9 years old. Now, 80% of adults with Down syndrome reach 60 years old, and many live even longer. Students with Down Syndrome are visual learners. Use teaching methods that involve objects and pictures.
Present information visually using things like projectors, white board, posters, charts, videos, etc. Students with Down syndrome work best with one-on-one or small group instruction. Use large group and whole class instruction sparingly because they are the least effective with these children. Concrete or "hands-on" materials are most effective in students with Down syndrome. Avoid using workbooks, paper and pencil activities, and textbook only activities, especially with younger students.
Use manipulatives when applicable and have a variety of activities to keep students engaged.
Allow students to do short "exercises" before writing like squeezing and relaxing fists.
Allow homework to be hands-on as much as possible as well. Students with Down syndrome may have difficulty processing more than one source of information at once and doing more than one thing at a time. Focus on completing one task at a time.
Look at the student to give directions, but look away while he is processing the request. Students with Down syndrome may need more encouragement, acceptance, and positive feedback than other students. Assign well-explained tasks that are suitable for the student's mental age.
Use positive language. Instead of saying, "That's wrong," say, "Try another way. Early Intervention: A systematic program of therapy, exercises, and activities designed to address developmental delays.
This process can start any time after birth, and the sooner it starts the better it is for the child. Common services include physical therapy, speech and language therapy, and occupational therapy. FICTION:
Down syndrome is a rare disorder. Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring genetic condition.
1 in every 691 babies is born with Down syndrome in the United States; that is approximately 6,000 births per year.
Over 400,000 people in the U.S. have Down syndrome. FICTION:
People with Down syndrome have severe cognitive delays. Most people with Down syndrome have cognitive delays that are mild to moderate. Researchers and educators are still finding the full educational potential of individuals with Down syndrome. FICTION:
Down syndrome is hereditary. Only 1% of all cases of Down syndrome are hereditary. 99% of the cases are completely random. FACT: FACT: FACT: FICTION:
Children with Down syndrome must be placed in segregated special education programs. FACT: Students with Down syndrome are included in regular education classrooms all around the United States.
These students graduate from high school with regular diplomas, go to college, and in some cases, graduate with college degrees. FICTION:
Most people with Down syndrome are institutionalized. FACT: Individuals with Down syndrome are active participants in the educational, vocational, social, and recreational activities of their communities.
They participate in sports, music, art, and many other programs.
Myths & truths. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Myths-Truths/
Down syndrome facts. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Down-Syndrome-Facts/
Early intervention. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Resources/Early-Intervention/
What is down syndrome?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/What-Is-Down-Syndrome/
Managing behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Resources/Managing-Behavior/
Preferred language guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Preferred-Language-Guide/
Barta, L., & Salinas, Y. (2010). Supporting the student with down syndrome in your classroom. Down syndrome association of West Michigan, 12-15. Retrieved from http://www.dsawm.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=EdUFKA910ek=&tabid=87
Accessing the curriculum - strategies for differentiation for pupils with down syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.down-syndrome.org/information/education/curriculum/?page=4 Haley Callahan
Moenika Ford SPED 223 Online