Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


The Solar System


Ray Lamb

on 12 April 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Solar System

THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system consists of the sun, planets orbiting the sun, satellites (moons), asteroids, comets, and interplanetary medium. solar system can be divided into two parts: solar system can be divided by the composition of the planets 1. Terrestrail Planets 2. Jovian (gas) planets Mecury, Venus, Earth, and Mars Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune *Pluto does not fit into either category* 1. Inner solar system 2. Outer solar system Consist of the sun, mercury, venus, earth, and mars made up of jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, and pluto Formation of The Solar System -When the "Bang" occurred a cloud of interstellar gas and dust contracted to form the sun and planets.

-These type of clouds spin along the same rotational axis...this is why the planets formed in the same plane

-Gravity also caused the cloud to collapse to form into a ball of hot gases and dust = THE SUN

-All the other particles then collided to form the other planets, asteroids, comets, interplanetary medium, and satellites (moons)

-The further from the sun meant more gases and less material

-The Jovian planets are large with high gravitational fields, so they accumulated much of the hydrogen and helium Planets Small Bodies SUN Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Earth's Moon Mars' Moons Phobos Deimos Jupiter's Moons: there are 63 moons...we will talk about the four largest Io Europa Ganymede Callisto Saturn's Moons: Saturn has 62 moons...we are only going to discuss 4 Remember: -has chemicals that preceded life on earth...
-cluse to how life on earth started
-largest moon of Saturn...larger than mercury
-its atmophere is 10x's more dense than Earth's Remember: -nick named ying yang
-half black half white
-Mountain ridge which is why it has a walnut shape Remember: -second densest moon (1st is Titan)
-2/3 water-ice and 1/3 rocky core Rember:
-is on of the brightest objects in our solar system
-100% of sunlight is reflected back
-may have liquid water on it Uranus' Moons: It has 27 moons we will talk about 4 of them Miranda Ariel Umbriel Titania Titania displays evidence of other geologic activity at some point in its history. The large, trenchlike feature at middle right suggests at least one episode of tectonic activity. is the smallest and innermost of Uranus Ariel's composition is roughly 70% ices (water ice, carbon dioxide ice, and possibly methane ices) and 30% silicate rock It's rocky core and an icy mantle the surface is the darkest among Uranian moons -the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System

-With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System -Europa is slightly smaller than Earth's Moon

-primarily made of silicate rock and likely has an iron core

-atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen -largest moon in the Solar System

-saltwater ocean is believed to exist below Ganymede's surface, sandwiched between layers of ice -rotates as fast as it orbits so the same face always shows

-it surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and probably molecular oxygen -appears to be similar to an asteroids

-density is too low to be solid rock, however, might contain a substantial reservoir of ice. -composed of rock rich in carbonaceous material Neptune's moons: It has 13 moons we will talk about 4 of them Triton -retrograde orbit, which is an orbit in the opposite direction to its planet's rotation

-Triton consists of a crust of frozen nitrogen over an icy mantle believed to cover a substantial core of rock and metal Pluto's moons: Pluto has three known moons we will discuss one of them. Charon -is the largest satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto.

-covered with nitrogen and methane ices Perspective -1.496 x 10^8 km from the earth

-The emperature:
5800 K (surface) and
15,600,000 K (core)

-It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System

-The Sun is about 4.5 billion years old

-If the Sun were hollow, a million Earths could fit inside it.

-Sun’s gravitational pull holds the solar system together

-The outer layers of the Sun exhibit differential rotation: Layers of the Sun 1. Core
2. Radiative zone
3. Convective zone
4. Photosphere
5. Chromosphere
6. Corona
7. Sunspot
8. Granules
9. Prominence Photosphere:
Is the surface of the Sun and has a temperature of about 5800 K
Makes spicules, long thin fingers of luminous gas which appear like the blades of a huge field of fiery grass growing upwards from the photosphere below
The Corona:
It extends to Earth and beyond as the solar wind.
the corona is several hundred times hotter than the chromospheres and photosphere Pollux (star) Sirius Arcturus -Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky because of its close proximity

-twice as massive as the Sun

-25 times more luminous than the Sun

-Star becomes most visible when winter occurs in the notheren hemisphere -1.7 times the mass of the Sun

-32 times the luminosity

-it is thought that the star is younger than the Sun -third brightest star in the night sky

-at least 110 times more luminous than the Sun

-total power output is about 180 times that of the Sun Perspective Venus Mercury Moon: -Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System

-about 238,857 mi away

-orbits around the Earth every 27.3 days

-it rotates about the same time it takes to orbit the Earth

-It used to rotate faster but has slowed down due to the Tidal friction between it and the earth

-This results in it nearly always keeping the same face turned towards the Earth

--It takes about seven days for the moon to go to a different phase
+ New moon, first quarter, full, third quarter, then back to new moon -8th largest planet

-Mercury is the smallest terrestrial planet

-orbits the Sun once every 88 days

-It rotates one time every 29.3 days

-Surface temperatures range from about −297 °F to 801 °F

-Mercury's density is the second highest in the Solar System

-Mercury is similar in appearance to the moon(many craters) expcept it has a large iron core (mercury) and has no atmosphere

-A spacecraft would not be able to get to Mercury because of it's intense heat and radiation

_It has no moons -The only planet to have life and is possible because of liquid water and oxygen

-71% of Earth is water which helps moderate the temperature of Earth

-3rd planet from the sun and the 5th largest in the solar system

-Earth’s atmosphere has changed over time. Today it is mainly nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.

-Originally the atmosphere was has a larger amount of CO2

-Earth is the densest of all planets

-Earth's crust is made of solid plates that float on a hot mantle

-When the plates move it gives rise to terrain due to earthquakes and volcanoes

-water also causes erosion the change the face of the earth

-Earth is a young planet -the 7th largest planet
- 4th planet from the sun and is known as the red planet
-Orbits the sun 687 Earth days
-Rotates every 24 hours 39 minutes 35 seconds long
-The average temperature on Mars is about -80F
-Like Earth, Mars rotates on its axis from west to east…counter clockwise -It is the closest Jovian planet to the sun and largest of the Jovian planets

-the biggest planet...You can fit 1000 Earths inside Jupiter!

-5th planet from the sun

-Almost 12 Earth years for it to orbit around the sun

-10 hours to rotate which is the fastest in the solar system

-Made up of many gases and an atmosphere like the sun

-The clouds (gases) of Jupiter are about -230F but the closer you get to the core it warms up to about 70F

-Jupiter has differential rotation which means that every layer seen rotates in different directions.

-Rotates the fastest at the equator and the slowest at the poles.

-Jupiter's Red Spot:

-It is a giant storm in the atmosphere
-about 3x Earth's size and rotates counter clockwise about every six
earth days.

-The rest of the atmosphere are alternating light and dark regions called zones and belts and has ammonia, hydrogen, and helium gases

-zones and belts have different temps.

-Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the sun

-Internal part of Jupiter is very hot and has a rocky core made of metallic (liquid) hydrogen layer and a molecular hydrogen layer.

-Metallic hydrogen causes Jupiter to have a strong magnetic field

Jupiter has many moons: 63 in total; the four largest moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, and 12 smaller moons Red spot -Is the 6th planet from the sun and slightly smaller that Jupiter

-It takes about 29.5 years to orbit the sun

-It takes 10 hours and 49 minutes for Saturn to rotate

-You can fit about 755 Earths in Saturn

-The temperature at the top of Saturn's clouds averages -287 F

-has the lowest density of all the planets...less than water

-the atmosphere has belts that run parallel to the equator and rotate differentially

--Jupiter and Saturn are made up of similar gases

-It has more ammonia in its atmosphere than Jupiter because it is colder.

-It is so cold it snows ammonia

-Since Saturn is colder its clouds are closer to the interior making it appear less colorful

-Because Saturn has a tilt like Earth is experiences season and each season last 7.5 years!

-It has large sustained storms with winds much stronger than Jupiter’s

-Saturn has 7 large rings that give it its unique look:

-Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune also have rings but they are very faint

-The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice, with some contamination from
dust and other chemicals.

-The largest pieces are a few meters across

-They are visible due to reflection of the sun and dust the rings have a lot of space. Saturn's Rings -7th planet from the sun with its equatorial plane rotated at 98 degrees

-Takes 84 years to orbit the sun

-Take 17 hours and 15 minutes to rotate

-Can fit 64 Earths inside it

-its temperature is -355 F

-It is the only planet that rotates from east to west and not west to east

-It is very cold because of its distance from the sun

-Its atmosphere would have ammonia like Jupiter and Saturn but it’s too cold to keep it as a gas so it mainly consist of methane, hydrogen, and possibly helium

-It appears a blue-green because it absorbs red light in its atmosphere due to methane

-Its core is solid and has an Ocean that is 5,000 Miles deep made of water, ammonia, and methane

-The clouds of Uranus have differential rotation -is the 8th furthest planet from the sun but in some portions of its orbit it sometimes it the furthest planet from the sun

-It takes 165 years to orbit the sun

-It takes 16 hours to rotate

-You can fit 60 Earths inside it

-The temperature is −353 °F

-Very similar to Uranus it also appears blue because its atmosphere absorbs red light and has a similar density and mass

-The atmosphere has water ice, ammonia ice, gaseous methane, hydrogen, ethane, and helium

-Neptune has ethane unlike Uranus and also has internal heat and contains an ocean like Uranus

-Neptune has high speeds wind up to 1,300 mph which are the highest in the solar system which means its atmosphere changes rapidly.

-Most of the winds move in the opposite direction of the planet’s rotation

-It used to have a surface feature call the Dark Spot:
-this storm is about the same size as earth
-it does not have clouds like Jupiter's Red Spot
-its winds reach up to 2400 Km/hr. -It is the furthest planet/dwarf planet from the sun in the majority of its orbit (sometimes Neptune is the furthest)

-Takes 248 years to orbit the sun

-Takes 6.4 days to rotate

-It about -380 F

-you can fit 5 Plutos in Earth

-knowledge of Pluto is faint because no space craft has ever visited it.

-It is made up of frozen nitrogen, water ice, methane ice, and rock

-The color varies between charcoal black, dark orange and white

-It has 3 satellites and of them is Charon which is a dwarf planet even though it orbits Pluto

-the mass and density of Pluto are too hard to tell from the little information known about it

-They predict that is iced over for most of its orbit and gets gaseous when it’s closest to the sun

-If Pluto were placed as near to the Sun as Earth, it would develop a tail, as comets do

-As Pluto gets further away from the Sun its atmosphere freezes out, and falls to the surface of Pluto like snow.

-It has similar characteristics of Triton (Neptune's Moon)

-Triton was captured by Neptune but Pluto and Charon still orbit the sun Asteroids -sometimes called minor planets or planetoids, are small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun, especially in the inner Solar System

-Hunks of different types of rocks -Meteorites are bits of rock that are captured by a planet's gravity and pulled to the surface.

-Meteorites come in three types: stony, stony-iron, and iron. Meteorites Comets -a relatively small, icy mass in usually larger than a meteoroid

-when it is close to the Sun it displays a coma (temporary atmosphere) and sometimes a tail

-heat from the Sun makes the cloud boil off in the direction away from the Sun which is the reason why the tail is always pionting away from the sun

-scientist believe that when comets die out they become asteriods Black Holes -a region of space from which nothing, including light, can escape

-there is an undetectable surface which marks the point of no return, called an event horizon.

-Theorized that black holes were once stars about 10x the mass of our sun

-they are so hot and burn so fast that they implode taking in everything it touches Asteroid Belt -region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter

- is composed primarily of rock and metal

-asteroid material is so thinly distributed that multiple spacecrafts have gone through it without incident.

-"Ceres" is an asteroid found in the belt and is the largest known asteroid Kuiper Belt -beyond the planets extending from the orbit of Neptune

-20 times as wide and 20200 times more massive than the asteroid belt

-made primarily of forzen ices such as methane, ammonia and water

-home to at least three dwarf planets Pluto, Haumea and Makemake. -Looking from Earth Venus appears to rise in the morning and evening.
*known as the Morning and Evening start*
-Venus has a density similar to Earth's and slightly smaller than Earth (6th largest including Pluto)
-Venus' thick atmosphere is made primarily of Carbon dioxide
-Its atmosphere flows in a circular pattern
-take 243 days for it to rotate
- Takes 224.7 for Venus to orbit the sun
-Venus has no solid inner core
-Venus appears bright because the clouds and atmosphere reflect sunlight
-There are two levels of clouds the lower layer is the densest the upper layer floats in the atmosphere
-Northern portion is mountainous with plateaus
-Southern portion is flat with craters
-Gets up to 900F Features of Mars:
-Northern half of Mars has volcanic plains and large volcanoes
-Tharsis Buldge:
-10km high and 8000km across
-Takes up a quarter of the surface
-Two Theories of how it got there:
1. It’s a lava plateau because there are a lot of large volcanoes on it.
2. It bulged out to balance the difference in density on its opposite side possibly due to it getting hit by a large meteoroid -Valles Marineris:
-located along the equator the canyons run roughly east-west for about 2,500 miles, which is close to the distance from Philadelphia to San Diego! Some parts are 60 miles wide and 5 to 6 miles deep!

-Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system, “Olympus Mons”
-it rises up 17 miles high and about 370 miles in diameter
-Water was present on Mars because there are dry river systems but this was very long ago at least 4 billion years ago.
-Mars has a very thin atmosphere which makes the planet vulnerable to meteoroids
-One Large meteoroid hit mars so hard that it caused its magnetic field to go away along with majority of its atmosphere making it difficult to keep liquid water
-It has permanent ice caps at both poles made of CO2 layered with dark dust Nereid Proteus water ice has been detected on its surface Halimede - is thought to be made from the scraps of Triton

-heavily cratered could be a fragment of Nereid Mars Craters: are round structures of various sizes with various details

Maria: large dark gray or black areas that are fairly smooth

Highlands: light-colored areas with lots of rough mountains and craters.

Rays: the white lines that extend in all directions from some craters

Rilles: structures that look like canyons or stream across courses

Waning: growing smaller or getting less

Waxing: growing larger or getting bigger

Apogee: When the moon is farthest from the earth

Perigee: when the moon is the closest to the earth Maria Maria Ray Crater Highglands
Full transcript