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Dispersal of Seeds
Transcript of Dispersal of Seeds
What is seed Dispersal ?
Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants have limited mobility and consequently rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their seeds . Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant individually or collectively, as well as dispersed in both space and time. There are five main modes of seed dispersal: gravity, wind, ballistic, water and by animals.
Types of Seed Dispersal
There are 5 types of seed dispersal .
6. Dispersal by Animals
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Done by : Fatima Kamal
Explained by : Aisha and Sumbal
Seed survival is often higher away from the parent plant. This higher survival may result from the actions of density-dependent seed predators which often target the high concentrations of seeds beneath adults. Competition with adult plants may also be lower when seeds are transported away from their parent. Seed dispersal also allows plants to reach specific habitats that are favorable for survival, a hypothesis known as directed dispersal.
Benefits of Seed Dispersal.
The simplest form of seed dispersal utilizes gravity. In this scenario, seeds drop from the parent plant and are typically not dispersed very far. Species with gravity- dispersed seeds typically lack obvious rewards (i.e. fleshy fruit) or extra structures (i.e. winged seeds)
Dispersal of seeds by GRAVITY
Wind dispersal, (anemochory), is one of the most common means of dispersal. Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or , they can flutter to the ground. The classic examples of these dispersal mechanisms include dandelions , which have a feathery pap pus attached to their seeds and can be dispersed long distances, and others who have winged seeds ,flutter to the ground.
Dispersal of seeds by WIND
Ballistic seed dispersal,(autochory), is the physical and often explosive discharge of seeds from the fruit. The seeds are typically ejected from the fruit by elastic contraction of the fruit tissues and often the fruits are shaped such that seeds are flung away from the parent plant
Dispersal of seeds by BALLISTICS
Dispersal of seeds by WATER
Many aquatic and some terrestrial plant species utilize hydrochory, or seed dispersal through water. Seeds can travel for extremely long distances, depending on the specific mode of water dispersal. For instance, coconuts can travel up to thousands of kilometers on the ocean before settling on land and germinating.
Seed dispersal by ANIMALS
Seed dispersal via ingestion by animals, ( endozoochory), is the dispersal mechanism for most tree species. Endozoochory is generally a mutualistic relationship in which a plant surrounds seeds with an edible, nutritious fruit as a reward to animals that consume it. Birds and mammals are the most important seed dispersers, but a wide variety of other animals.