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Open Access: A Brief History

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Luke Evans

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of Open Access: A Brief History

Open Access:
A Brief History
Open Access
Open Access as a principle advocates the open collaboration, dissemination and sharing of ideas, insights and innovations.
The Internet:
Making Open Access Possible...
Open Access:
The Birth of a Principle
The Internet enables the principles of Open Access to be put into practice. In fact, the reality of information sharing online is part of what has informed and inspired Open Access as a principle.

Prior to the contemporary Internet, on August 30, 1969 the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense.

On January 1, 1983. ARPANET switched from the NCP protocol to TCP/IP, marking what many consider to be the birth of the Internet.
The UK Government
Funding Open Access
December 10th, 2003:
the UK Science and Technology Committee inquiry launched an investigation into the prices and availability of scientific and academic journals.

July 20th, 2004:
Reporting back on the investigation recommended mandating UK public funding bodies to require the open archiving of funded research outputs.
The UK Government
Research Councils UK - Part 1
June 28th, 2005:
The Research Councils UK released a draft Open Access policy, which would mandate open accessibility for all publicly funded research.

Following on from this, a year later, the various research councils comprising the RCUK issued individual Open Access policies.

September 15, 2011:
The Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (‘Finch’ Group) is formed, and tasked with examining how UK research can be made more openly accessible.
The UK Government
Research Councils UK - Part 2
June 16th, 2012:
the UK Government accept the findings of the Finch Report. They accept ‘Gold’ access as a preference to ‘Green’ access routes. On July 17th, the Research Councils UK umbrella body establishes policy mandating all research resulting from its funding to be published as open access, broadly in line with the findings of the Finch Report.

September 7th, 2012:
The UK Government Business, Innovation and Skills department announces a £10 million fund to higher education institutions to assist in the transition to open access research publishing.

April 1st, 2013:
All publications resulting from publicly funded research will have to be made openly accessible. Future applications for funding will only take into account prior research that is openly accessible.
Other Funders...
Open Access Policy
October 1st, 2005:
The Wellcome Trust started implementing its new open-access mandate for Wellcome-funded research.

October 1st, 2006:
The year-old OA policy at the Wellcome Trust is extended to all outstanding grants.

April 1st, 2013:
The Wellcome Trust requires that CC-BY licences be applied to all research publications resulting from their funding.
Open Access
Open Access - Part 1
Europe and the EU/EC
December 1st-2nd, 2001:

The Budapest Open Access Initiative is a key moment in the development of Open Access as a principle. This meeting was convened in Budapest by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

This conference discussed and debated efforts to move towards a model of academic publishing enabling the free dissemination of high quality research. With quality research made freely available, both innovation and collaboration would become easier.

June 20th, 2003:
The Bethesda statement on Open Access is released.

October 22nd, 2003:
Berlin statement on Open Access is also released.

The Budapest, Bethesda and Berlin statements make up the 'BBB' definition of Open Access.

Both of these statements reiterated the ethos of Open Access and increased pressure within academia for a change to the dissemination of knowledge.
Open Access:
The Future of an Idea
The move towards Open Access publishing of our research creates a global audience for our insights, innovations and ideas.

It will mean that cost will be no barrier for those who need information on medical research, engineering techniques, or policy perspectives.

It will also result in the work of academia becoming accessible to everyone, meaning we will play an increasingly important role in shaping the debate on public ethics and social responsibility.
Growth of Open Access:
Open Access Journal Publishing
This graph demonstrates the growth of open access articles and journals:
Growth of Open Access:
Open Access Repositories
Number of Open Access repositories:
(Harnad, CC-BY-SA: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roar1aug2011.png)
(Laakso, M. et al: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020961)
Open Access:
Gold and Green Routes:
This graphic demonstrates the balance between 'Gold' and 'Green' Open Access routes.
('Nature', 21/06/2012 -http://www.nature.com/news/uk-jpg-7.4973?article=1.10846)
Open Access - Part 2
Some text credited to Peter Suber (CC-BY): http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeline.htm
Hybrid Open Access Journals:
Table of Publishers Options
(Taken from report by Study into Open Access Publishing by Dallmeier-Tiessen, Suenje et al (CC-BY): http://edoc.mpg.de/478647)
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