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Unit 3: Enlightenment Philosophers

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Stephanie Doss

on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of Unit 3: Enlightenment Philosophers

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Unit 3: Enlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment Thinkers
Thomas Hobbes (England)
John Locke (England)
Baron de Montesquieu (France)
Jean Jacques Rousseau (France)
Voltaire (France)
Thomas Hobbes
From
: England
John Locke
From:
England
Wrote:

Two Treatises on Government
The Enlightenment
Enlightenment Philosophers tried to answer this question, and came up with different results.
Rousseau
Voltaire
Montesquieu
Life, liberty . . .
and more Locke
Believed people are born free and equal with natural rights:
life
liberty
property
Inspired Thomas Jefferson when he was writing the Declaration of Independence
Question of the Enlightenment:
Are people essentially good or evil? Are people born being good, and society corrupts them, or are they born with animal instincts and society has to tame them?
The Enlightenment
was a period when people began to apply reason and logic, like you find in science, to all areas of life.
Characteristics:
Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural (animal) world
Led to religious tolerance
Led to democratic revolutions
Wrote:

Leviathan
Beliefs:
A strong central government is needed to keep order
supported absolute monarchy
Natural state of man is war (people are subject to their animal instincts)
Supported a
social contract
Beliefs:
Government's power comes from the people
Government's job is to protect people and their rights

From
: France
Wrote:
The Spirit of the Laws
Beliefs
:
Government should have a separation of powers
Legislative Branch - makes laws
Executive Branch - enforces laws
Judicial Branch - interprets laws
From:
France
Wrote
: The Social Contract
Beliefs:
Social Contract
: Government is a contract between people and their rulers.
Rulers are elected by the people, and all people are equal.
If people don't like their government, they can change it! (by choosing new leaders or overthrowing it)
From
: France
Wrote
:
Candide
Beliefs
:
Religious tolerance rather than fanaticism
Separation of church and state (government)
Freedom of speech
America's founding fathers used these ideas when building our government
Full transcript