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SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

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Aina Husnina

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

CONTENT
Basic subject verb agreement.
Subjects separated from verbs.
Indefinite pronouns as subjects.
Quantity words as subjects.
Objects of prepositions.

Subject- Verb agreement : number
Since a
noun
or a
pronoun
can be either
singular or plural
in number, the subject can be either
singular or plural
.
The
verb
, like the noun or the pronoun, has two numbers
singular
and
plural.

Compound subjects joined by and are always plural
A
pencil
and an
eraser

make
writing easier
SPECIAL CASE for Compound subjects joined by
and

When two nouns are treated as one entity (unit), the verb is in singular.

Example:
Bread and butter
was
his daily breakfast.
(Bread and butter stand for one item of food, so a singular verb is used.)
Breaking and entering 
is 
against the law.
The bed and breakfast 
was
 charming.
Time and tide
waits
for no man.

If there are 2 singular subject joined by ‘or’, take a singular verb.
- Two singular subjects connected by or, either/or, or neither/nor require a
singular verb.

Example:

My aunt or my uncle
 is arriving
 by train today.

Neither Juan nor Carmen 
is
 available.

Either Kiana or Casey 
is helping
 today with stage decorations.

THE END!
SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT
A subject is the noun

FOR EXAMPLE:
THE LADY
IS BEAUTIFUL
SHE
IS BEAUTIFUL
A verb is a word or set of words that shows action, feeling or state of being
FOR EXAMPLE:

I
LIKE
MY FRIENDS
THEY
SEEMS
FRIENDLY
Basic Rule:

A singular subject (she, Bill, car) takes a singular verb (is, goes, shines), whereas a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Example:
The list of items is/are on the desk.
If you know that
list is the subject
,
then
you will choose is for the verb.
Example :

The dog
chases
the cat.
-The subject is singular, so the verb is also singular.

The dogs
chase
the cat.
-The subject is plural, so the verb is also plural.

singular
singular

car
 and a
 bike are
 my means of transportation.
plural
With subjects joined by or/nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it.
If one
subject is singular
& the
other is plural
, the
verb
agrees with the subject that is the
closest to it
.
Subject That separated from verbs
A
can

of lima beans

sits
on the shelf
subject
description
verb
The
verb sits
agrees with the
subject can
, not with beans.

The
women
who went to the meeting

were
bored.
The
verb were
agrees with the
subject women
, not with meeting.

Indefinite pronouns as subject
Indefinite pronouns are
non-specific words
like someone, others, several or none. When a
singular indefinite
pronoun acts as a subject, it always
takes a singular verb
.
When a
plural indefinite
pronoun acts as subject, it always
takes a plural verb.

Example:


Everybody
 
dreads
 going to the dentist.
I've tried nine dentists and 
several
 
have
been real jokers.
Anyone 
who cracks jokes while his hands are in my mouth 
is 
in danger of being bitten
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Pay particular attention to
the ones that are always singular
or
always plural
. Remember that a modifying phrase or clause between the subject and verb
doesn't change the number of the subject:

Examples:


Nobody
 
is waiting
 for the light.

Nobody 
who can see past those cars 
is waiting
 for the light.

Few
 have even
 slowed down.

Few 
of the drivers in the line 
have even
 slowed down.


A few indefinite pronouns
agree with either singular or plural verbs
, depending on the rest of the sentence.

EXAMPLES:
More
 of that fruit
 is coming
 tomorrow.
More 
of those apples
 are coming
 tomorrow.
Around the holidays,
several
of my customers from the fancy part of town
ask
me to make marzipan.
 
Anyone
who can work with tools
knows
how to fix that mailbox.
 
Neither
of the actors
spends
much time memorizing lines
each
pronoun in the middle column
(any, all, some, most) changes number to match the object of the first preposition that follows.

All
of the bread
looks
 (to look) moldy.
All
of the slices

look
 (to look) moldy.
Some
of the bottles
smell
(to smell) strange.
 Some
of the milk
smells 
(to smell) strange.
None
of the butter
show 
(to show) any spoilage
None
of the eggs
shows
 
(to show) those tiny cracks.
Most
of this warehouse
needs
 (to need) a new refrigeration system.
Most
of these rooms
need
 (to need) new refrigerators.
Any
of the cosmetics that you find in the drawer
belong 
(to belong) to the people who lived here before.
Any
of the medicine in those drawers
belongs
 (to belong) to the people who just moved out.

THE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
*with
*beyond It all fits in the sentence.
*to
How to identify object of preposition:
 
 The dog ran _______ the crowd.
 
A preposition will fill in the blank perfectly. Most of the time.
Also any kind of verb is use able for the object of preposition.
Notes:
* it is always a noun
* follows a preposition

Another example:
My frog went to the pet store.

Find the verb and preposition then you will find the object of the preposition.(it is in
the prepositional phrase)
EXERCISE 1
1. Your friend (talk-talks) too much.

2. The man with the roses (look-looks) like your brother.

3. The women in the pool (swim-swims) well.

4. Bill (drive-drives) a cab.

5. The football players (run-runs) five miles every day.

6. That red-haired lady in the fur hat (live-lives) across the street.

7. He (cook-cooks) dinner for his family.

8. The boys (walk-walks) to school every day.

9. The weather on the coast (appear-appears) to be good this weekend.

10. The center on the basketball team (bounce-bounces) the ball too high.

ANSWERS FOR EXERCISE 1
1. talks

2. looks

3. swim

4. drives

5. run

6. lives

7. cooks

8. walk

9. appears

10. Bounces

EXERCISE 3
Identify the object of the preposition.

The boy ran down the street.
She kicked the ball to me.
The squirrel ran up the tree.
During class,the teacher returned the exams.
I am going there with my sisters.
For example, two plus two is four.
The man hiked up the hill.
He parked his car by the beach.
Lets go to the store.
He ran around the track.

EXERCISE 2
1. Mumps (is-are) one of the most uncomfortable diseases.

2. One hundred dollars (is-are) not a lot of money to some people.

3. She (doesn’t-don’t) look very well today.

4. Twenty minutes (is-are) the amount of time it takes me to get home from work.

5. It (doesn’t-don’t) seem so cold today.

6. Gymnastics (is-are) easy for Angela.

7. Interesting news (is-are) what sells our paper.

8. A pound of cookies (cost-costs) about a dollar.




ANSWERS FOR EXERCISE 2
1. is

2. is

3. doesn’t

4. is

5. doesn’t


6. Is

7. is

8. costs

9. don’t

10. doesn’t

Quantity words as subject
Quantity words
can be used alone
or
used to modify a noun
. Some are singular; some
are plural; some can be used to indicate either singular or plural, depending on
the noun they refer to.

With a singular or non-count noun or clause, use a singular verb:

One-third of this article is taken up with statistical analysis.
Much of the book seems relevant to this study.
Half of what he writes is undocumented.

With a
plural noun
, use a
plural verb
:
One-third of the students have graduate degrees.
Many researchers depend on grants from industry.
Half of his articles are peer-reviewed.
With a
collective noun,
use either a
singular or a plural verb
, depending on whether you want to emphasize the single group or its individual members:
Half of my family lives/live in Canada.
All of the class is/are here.
Ten percent of the population is/are bilingual.
The words majority and minority are used in a variety of ways
When majority/minority mean an 
unspecified number more or less than 50%
, use a
singular verb:

The majority holds no strong views.
A small minority indicates it supports the proposal.

 When 
majority/minority mean a specific percentage, you may use either a singular or a plural verb
:
 
A 75% majority have/has voted against the measure.
A 10% minority are/is opposed to the measure.
Expressions of time, money and distance usually take a singular verb:
Ten dollars 
is
 a great deal of money to a child.
Ten kilometers 
is
 too far to walk.
Six weeks 
is
 not long enough.

THE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION (locators of time and space)
How to identify object of preposition:

Prepositions often begin prepositional phrases. To complete the phrase, the preposition usually teams up with a noun, pronoun, or gerund, or the object of the preposition. Here are some examples:

At noon
At 
= preposition; 
noon
 = noun or the object of the preposition.

Behind them
Behind
 = preposition;
 them
 = pronoun or the object of the preposition.

Without sneezing
Without
 = preposition; 
sneezing
 = gerund or the object of the preposition.
The object of the preposition will often have modifiers that add description:

At the kitchen counter
At
 = preposition; 
the, kitchen
 = modifiers; 
counter
 = noun or the object of the preposition.

Between us only
Between
 = preposition; 
us 
= pronoun or the object of the preposition; 
only
 = modifier.

Without completely finishing
Without 
= preposition; 
completely
 = modifier; 
finishing
 = gerund or the object of the
preposition.
Infrequently, a 
clause
 will be the object of the preposition, as in this example:

In class today, we talked about 
what Mr. Duncan expects in our next research essay.

About
 = preposition;
 what Mr. Duncan expects in our next research essay
 = noun clause or the object of the preposition.

thanks!
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