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Road to reading
Transcript of Road to reading
LCN632 Understanding Reading and Writing Difficulties
FOUNDATION LITERACY SKILLS:
1. Oral language
2. phonemic awareness
Children who are immersed in oral language experiences prior to formal schooling are more likely to become 'competent and critical' readers.
(Konza, 2006, p.12)
Literacy Development Models
There are numerous different literacy development models:
- Deficit Models
- Contextual Models
- Cognitive Models
- Stage Models
Models are not diagnostic tools (Winch et al., 2006, p.62).
State Syllabus documents provide statements of learning and content descriptors (i.e. learning experiences) that educators can use to assess reading ability and guide instructional practices.
Literacy developmental stages are:
"like interwoven threads...the braid begins with the intertwining threads of oral language and stories that are read to children...As children continue to develop they experiment with putting ideas on paper, a written thread is entwined... As children move to reading, the threads begin to bond. [A child's] growing knowledge of spelling and orthography...strengthens the bonding".
(Bear et al., 2012, p.1)
Stage Development Models:
Stages do not occur in lineal sequence.
EMERGENT LITERACY STAGE:
the stage between birth and 5-6 years
a child begins to develop their oral language skills
STAGES OF READING DEVELOPMENT
Between ages 2-6, children experience explosive vocabulary growth.
(Biemiller, (2001, p.25)
Oral language interactions are important:
quality language (i.e. a number and variety of words)
reading story books
quality play experiences
(Konza, 2011, p.1)
Children need to be immersed in words for incidental and intentional learning.
Blachowicz & Fisher,2010, p. 225; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998,p.518)
When parents read to children they:
learn to notice when words are missing or a sentence does not make sense
(Winch et al., 2006, p.64)
engage in discussions that allows them to:
- respond verbally
- ask and answer questions
- use words in the right order
- retell events and stories
When babbling children are practicing the intonation and rhythm of language.
PHONOLOGICAL & Phonemic AWARENESS
Phonological awareness is a broad term referring to the ability to focus on the sounds of speech...rhythm...rhyme...separate sounds".
(Konza, 2011, p.1)
Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness that refers to a child's awareness that:
- speech can be separated into separate words
- words can be broken into separate syllables
- syllables can be separated into separated sounds
Phonemic awareness is broken into subsets:
- alliteration (i.e. first sounds)
- isolation (i.e. hear separate sounds)
- segmentation (i.e. detect sequence of sounds in syllable)
- blending (i.e. blending phonemes)
Children begin to develop their knowledge of letter-sound relationships during the early years of schooling.
There are 44 different sounds which can be spelled approximately 1200 ways.
The Carnine Order is the recommended teaching sequence.
(Konza, 2011, p.1)
(Konza, 2011, p.41)
should take no more than approximately 20 hours in total
could run for 10-15 minutes for the first Semester of school
There are three approaches to phonics instruction:
SYNTHETIC - focus on individual sounds
- blending individual sounds
- contextualise sounds
EMBEDDED - pointing out letter-sound relationships to
children while reading
ANALYTICAL - analysis of whole words
Developing oral language
Phonics instruction needs to be part of a "broader literacy program the includes the development of...vocabulary, syntax, comprehension and strategic reading abilities, decoding strategies and writing..."
(Yopp & Yopp, 2000, p. 142)
chants, jingles and songs
nursery rhymes and story book
blending and segmenting activities
teaching active listening skills
Modelled, Guided and Independent reading
Road Blocks to Literacy Development
Some causal factors that hinder development:
physical or emotional abuse
hearing and/or visual impairment
Poor teaching instruction
REFER TO SPEECH PATHOLOGIST OR GUIDANCE OFFICER
Allington, R.L. (2006). What really matters for struggling readers (2nd ed.). Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
Biemiller, A. (2001). Teaching vocabulary: Early, direct and sequential. Retrieved from ERIC database. (EJ624222)
Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2012). Words Their Way : Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and
Spelling Instruction (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2010). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms (4th ed.). Boston, Allyn & Bacon.
Cunningham, P. (2011). Best Practices in Teaching Phonological Awareness and Phonics. In L. Morrow & L. Gambrell (Eds.)
Best Practices in Literacy Instruction (pp. 199-223). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gaines, B. R. (2002). Screening for childhood speech-language problems. Retrieved from ProQuest. (232046878)
Gillon, G. T. (2000). The efficacy of phonological awareness intervention for children with spoken language impairment.
Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. Retrieved from ProQuest. (EJ609671)
Konza, D. (2006). Teaching Children with Reading Difficulties (2nd ed.).Victoria: Cengage Learning.
Konza, D. (2011, June). Research into practice – Understanding the reading process. Retrieved from
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Smith, W.P. (2008). K12 Reader Reading Instruction Resources. Retrieved from http://www.k12reader.com/dolch-word-list/
Strickland, D. S., & Morrow, L. M. (1990). Emerging Readers & Writers: Family Literacy: Sharing Good Books. Retrieved
Strickland, D. S., & Morrow, L. M. (2000). Beginning reading and writing (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Unsworth, L., Thomas, A., Simpson, A., & Asha, J. (2005). Children’s literature and Computer Based Learning. United
Kingdom: Open University Press.
Westwood, Peter S. (2008). What teachers need to know about reading and writing difficulties. Camberwell, Vic: ACER Press.
Westwood, P. (2009). Arguing the case for a simple view of literacy assessment. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. 14
Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child Development and Emergent Literacy. Retrieved from
Winch, G., Johnston, R., March, P., Ljungdahl , L., & Holliday, M. (2006). Literacy: Reading, Writing and Children’s Literature
(3rd ed.). Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Yopp, H. K., & Yopp, R. H. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 54
National Reading Panel. (2000) Teaching children to read: An evidenced-based assessment of the scientific research literature on
reading and its implications for reading instruction (National Institute of Health Publication No. 00-4769). Retrieved