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the audio-lingual method
Transcript of the audio-lingual method
BACKWARD BUILD-UP (expansion) drill
This drill is used when a long line of a dialog is giving student trouble. The teacher breaks down the line into several parts. The students repeat a part of the sentence, usually the last phrase of the line. Then, following the teacher's cue, the students expand what they are repeating part by part until they are able to repeat the entire line. The teacher begins with the part at the end of the sentence to keep the intonation of the line as natural as possible. This also directs more student attention to the end of the sentence, where new information typically occurs.
A chain drill gets its name from the chain of conversation that forms around the room as students, one-by-one, ask and answer questions of each other. A chain drill allows some controlled communication, even though it is limited. A chain drill also gives the teacher an opportunity to check each students' speech.
Students are asked to repeat the teacher's model as accurately and as quickly as possible. This drill is often used to teach the lines of the dialog.
SINGLE-SLOT SUBSTITUTION DRILL
The teacher says a line, usually from the dialog. Next, the teacher says a word or phrase-called the cue. The students repeat the line the teacher has given them, substituting the cue into the line in its proper place. The major purpose of this drill is to give the students practice in finding and filling in the slots of a sentence.
MULTIPLE-SLOT SUBSTITUTION DRILL
This drill is similar to the S.S.S.D. The difference is that the teacher gives cue phrases, one at a time, that fit into different slots in the dialog line. The students most recognize what part of speech each cue is, or at least, where it fits into the sentence, and make any other changes, such as subject-verb agreement. They then say the line, fitting the cue phrase into the line where it belongs.
Dialogs or short conversations between two people are often used to begin a new lesson. Students memorize the dialog through mimicry; students usually take the role of one person in the dialog, and the teacher the other. After the students have learned the one person's part. Another way of practicing the two roles is for half of the class to take one role and the other half to take the other. After the dialog has been memorized, pairs of individual students might perform the dialog for the rest of the class.
The teacher gives students a certain kind of sentence pattern, an affirmative sentence for example. Students are asked to transform this sentence into a negative sentence. Other ex of transformation to ask of students are changing a statement into a question, an active sentence into a passive one, or direct speech into reported speech.
QUESTION AND ANSWER DRILL
This drill gives students practice with answering questions. The students should answer the teacher's questions very quickly.
USE OF MINIMAL PAIRS
The teacher works with pairs of words which differ in only one sound, students are first asked to perceive the difference between the two words and later to be able to say the two words.
COMPLETE THE DIALOG
Selected words are erased form a dialog students have learned, students complete the dialog by filling the blanks with the missing words.
Games like the supermarket alphabet game are used in the Audio-Lingual Method. The games are designed to get students to practice a grammar point within a context. Students are able to express themselves, although it is rather limited in this game. There is a lot of repetition in this game.