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T4A- Yamama Alkaissy, Anouk Schmermberg, Tessa Stoop, Krisna Baghouzian

Krisna Baghouzian

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Akkadians

2350 B.C. Akkadians Bibliography -Akkadian Empire was centered in the city of Akkad (located in Mesopotamia)
-Precise archaeological site is never found despite numerous searches
-Situated on west bank of Euphrates around 50 km from nowadays Baghdad, capital of Iraq
-Sometimes regarded as the first empire in history
-Akkadian Empire was founded by Sargon of Akkad Introduction Born in 2500 BC to an Akkadian high priestess and a poor father
Abandoned by his mother, but found by the King of Kish (ancient city of Sumer)
Brought up in the king’s court
He renovated a city at later age; the Akkadian empire we know of. He made himself king
Sargon killed the King of Kish and expanded his empire Intro- Sargon of Akkad - Reconstructed and extended many Sumerian temples.
E.g. At Nippur: Buildings
The Sargonid dynasty: - Built palaces with useful facilities

- Built palaces with powerful fortresses on their “road of communication”, known as lines of imperial connection, between different cities. Buildings
The Sagonid dynasty: - The ruins of the Akkadian buildings are insufficient to suggest either changes in architectural style or structural innovations.

- There haven’t been a lot of Akkadian buildings excavated. Buildings Akkadians were close in culture to the Sumerians Means of living Ziggurat
- Complex temple including other buildings
- Pyramid shaped with a flat top, made out of sun-baked bricks
- Very important building to the people in Akkad
- Served as homes for the gods
- Only entered by priests, to care for the gods and attend their needs Means of living
- The people in the Akkadian empire were brought into sections depending on rank and wealth -First poet in history known by name: Akkadian Enheduanna
-Wife is the Sumerian moon god and daughter of Sargon
-Her known works include hymns to the gods
-Her poetry marks significant development in cuneiform Means of living- literature -The irrigated farmlands of southern Iraq

-The rain-fed agriculture of northern Iraq For trade, the Akkadians were dependent on the agricultural systems of the region: Trade & Economy -The rainfall level was very low.

-There was a lot of unpredictable flooding Trade & Economy
Irrigation was so important because: During periods of food shortage. The maintenance was done by farmers.

Under the control of city temple authorities.

As a kind of unemployment relief. Trade & Economy
Irrigation: -In the late spring and during the dry summer months.
-The Nomadic ‘Martu’ would raise their flocks of sheep and goats:
To graze on the stubble
To be watered from the river and Trade & Economy
Harvest: -Meat
-Wool They had to pay a tax to the temples in: How they felt about taxes Good years:
This was fine with everyone.

Bad Years:
Farmers were short in supply already.

Conflicts between them and the nomads would result. Economy and Trade -The subsidizing of southern populations by the import of wheat from the north of the Akkadian Empire.

Positive consequences:
Economic recovery
A growing population within the region Economy & Trade
Problem temporarily solved by: But was short of almost everything else.
In particular metal ores, timber and building stone. Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products.

All of these had to be imported. Economy & Trade
As a result… -Akkadian was part of a large Afro-Asiatic language family spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
-Cuneiform was used for the writing
-Cuneiform was derived from the ancient Sumerians
-Grammatical features of Akkadian are similar to those in Classical Arabic Language and Writing Language consists of:
- 3 genders: feminine, masculine, common
- 3 cases (for nouns & adjectives): nominative, accusative, genitive
- 3 tenses: present (incomplete action), preterite (complete action), permansive (state or condition)
- Sentence order:
subject + object + verb Language and Writing Akkadian and Sumerian language became very similar because of the contact with each other
-Akkadian was a central language in -Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East ->
However, it declined around the 8th century BC
-Aramaic dominated
-Around 223 BC Akadian was limited to priests
-Many Akkadian words are being used by Assyrian Christians in modern Iraq Language and Writing -Akkadians were the first to make weapons together with the Sumerians
-Helmet, armour, socket axe, chariot, sickle, composite bow etc. were created by the Akkadians
-Sargon of Akkad was the first to build empires and had the first standing army
-The Akkadians further developed the cuneiform and arithmetic Technology http://www.crystalinks.com/akkad.html
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090503134751AAS745F General Bibliography http://www.scribd.com/doc/41943641/Sumerians-Akkadians-Architecture-Power-Point


http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/volumes/v57/n02/sepextras10.html Buildings Introduction City - All later Mesopotamian states were like “classical standard” formed by government of Akkadians.

- Later, you became Ensi (highest functionary)if you the married goddess (Inanna). So you could make sure your descendants got power, after all they were of divine background. Cities- government - First, king-like Lugal (“great man”) was less powerful than priest-like Ensi and Lugal was only appointed in bad times. - Later, he gained leading role and had own palace, independent from the temple

- Tactics both Sargon and Naram-Sin used was giving high positions to their children Cities- government Buildings Means of living Trade and Economy Religion Writing Language and Technology The god Enki irrgation canals For free? NO -Akkadian and Sumerian religion quite similar=Sumero-Akkadian religion.
- Akkadians had same gods as Sumerians different names
- Highest deity in Sumerian religion was heaven god An, married to earth goddess Ki. Below them in ranking were so-called city gods, worshipped in a certain city.
-In Akkadian religion Shamash, the god of sun and justice was important, worshipped through whole Akkadian empire. Religion -Differences between Akkadian and Sumerian religion=hymns, rituals and cosmology.
-Akkadian religion was polytheistic, they acknowledged that there were many gods but was also henotheistic, meaning that they mainly worshipped one god.
-Akkadians believed purpose of men was to serve gods. Gods were in charge of humans’ fate. Humans were there to keep gods happy.
-To do so, many rituals, daily, monthly or yearly, performed in temple. Religion -Centre of faith was ziggurat (see means of living) where they worshipped gods and sacrificed animals, which was main part of their cult.
-From Naram-Sin -Sargons’ grandson- onwards, kings rose to rank of gods and got their own temple. Before Naram Sin, kings could be declared gods after death but now they were already gods during lifetime. Religion On the right, the god Shamash, god of sun and justice - Classic Arab Cuneiform
http://lcm.50webs.com/historical_timeline.htm <- good site with good map
http://suite101.com/article/mesopotamia-the-rise-of-sargon-a171682 http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nemonarchs/g/Sargon.html
http://genesisflood.blog.com/files/2010/09/image.axd_.jpeg Religion and cities Text:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sargon_of_Akkad.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Empire_akkad.svg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Koran.jpg Intro, means of living, language and writing - bibliography Sargon - First evidence from which we can learn about Sumerian weapons:
The Stele of Vultures (made after a battle held in 2525 B.C.) Trade and economy By Yamama, Tessa, Anouk and Krisna
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