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AQA AS Biology Unit 1

A summary of the key points in Unit 1

Laura Price

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of AQA AS Biology Unit 1

Unit 1: Biology and disease 3.1.1 Disease may be caused by pathogens or may reflect the effects of lifestyle Pathogens cause diseases by penetrating a host organism, damaging cells and producing toxins. Bacteria Viruses Fungi Can you identify the main differences between each of these types of organism?
Find out about at least three diseases which are caused by each type of organism. Lifestyle choices which lead to disease Specific risk factors are linked to cancer and coronary heart disease, among others. Changing your lifestyle can reduce the risk. What correlations have been found between different lifestyle choices and diseases?
What is cancer? 3.1.2 The Digestive System Digestion is the process in which large molecules are broken up by enzymes into smaller ones that can be absorbed or assimilated. Enzymes are a class of proteins with many essential functions in the body, including digestion. Proteins Enzymes Carbohydrates are another important group of biological molecules Watch until 6.44 for carbohydrate info, then return to the rest of the video when you get on to the lipid section. What are the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors and concentration on the action of enzymes? 3.1.3 Cells and how substances pass in and out of them Cells and how to observe them Cell membranes Return to the video in the carbohydrates section and check out the structure of lipids! Transport across membranes How would plant and animal cells react differently when placed in a) a strong solution of sugar and b) pure water? Cholera Follow this link to watch the whole of pt1 and pt2: http://www.thebiologyfaculty.org/a-levels/item/114-oral-rehydration-salts-pt1 Cholera is a prokaryotic pathogen which causes widespread outbreaks of disease in developing countries.
What is a prokaryote and what are their main features? You may need to return to the first videos under 3.1.1 to review your knowledge.
How is cholera spread? Why do people die from a cholera infection? What protection is available to help prevent people catching cholera? How can cholera be treated? What sort of testing do new drugs need before they can be given to patients? Watch this animation and note each step. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/bigpicture/drug/runflash2.html What size are plant and animal cells? How big are the organelles inside them? Make sure you have a rough idea of the result you are expecting when you make a calculation of size. 3.1.4 Lungs and lung disease Lungs act as an interface with the environment and may be affected by pathogens and factors related to lifestyle Structure of the lungs and how they are ventilated Diseases affecting the function of the lungs 3.1.5 The heart and heart disease The heart plays a central role in the circulation of the blood and can be strongly affected by activity level and diet. Heart Function Heart disease 3.1.6 Blood and immunity The immune cells in mammalian blood are able to destroy invading pathogens The specific and non-specific immune response Uses of antibodies There are many uses of monoclonal anibodies. These resources show just a few.
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