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Science Fiction Made Reality

During the twentieth century, there were many changes and developments in the fields of science and medicine.
by

Alison Roby

on 29 April 2011

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Transcript of Science Fiction Made Reality

t used a hollow needle to pass an insulated wire to the heart area to deliver the electrical shock; they called their invention the Hyman Otor. DISEASE Last major one occured 1918-1919: influenza
Killed more than WW1
Few major pandemics throughout the twentieth century
(Bentley) Pandemic Small Pox and Diptheria have been
completely eradicated
(Bentley) Diseases like polio have not
yet been eradicated, and has had a presence throughout the twentieth century (Bentley). Epidemics HIV/AIDS idendified 1981
2000, 36.1 million
21.8 million in Africa
(Bentley) Diseases like malaria and tuberculosis have begun to rise again
(Bentley) WORKS CONSULTED
Bentley, H. Jerry and Herbert F. Ziegler. Fourth edition. Traditions and Encounters. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008 Zielinski, Sarah. “Henrietta Lacks’ ‘Immortal’ Cells”. Jan 22. 2010.
April 24. 2011. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/Henrietta-Lacks-Immortal-Cells.html> Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishing. 2010. VACCINES and MEDICINE "The Pill" One of the most famous medicines created in the 20th century was the contracteptive pill which could be taken by mouth as a form of birth control. There was much controversy concerning the pill because of what it did. When the pill was first released, it was used to treat severe menstraul disorders, but finally after many tests, they were able to sell lower doses as a contraceptive pill. In 1954 Dr Jonas Salk invented a vaccine for poliomyelitis. A vaccine for measles was discovered in 1963. During the 20th century, many vaccinations were created to stop disseases. Dr. Jonas Salk created a vaccination Polio in 1954. Measels were vaccinated as well. Also, Smallpox was eradicated completely. Antibiotics Antibiotics were created in the 20th century to stop infection. They were developed during world war II to help soldiers with infected wounds. Insulin Diabetes is a disease that affects the pancreas and stops the body from producing the insulin that it needs to control sugar levels in the body. Doctors found out how to inject insulin into people suffering from the disease to treat them. Before insulin, most people with diabetes would die prematurely and wither away. Used to
develop
in vitro
fertilization
(Zielinski) To develop
cloning techniques
(Zielinski) CELL
CULTURE Used in
mapping
out genes
(Zielinski) 1951, first immortal
human cell line To develop the polio vaccine (Zielinski) To test the effect of zero gravity on cells (Zielinski) HeLa Made new developments
in various sides of
science possible (Zielinski) HeLa cells used
to test effect of
nuclear bombs
on cells (Skloot) Technology
in
Medicine ORGAN TRANSPLANTS Penicillin was first observed as an antibiotic Sir Alexander Fleming in 1929 Russian-born American microbiologist Selman Abraham Waksman discovered the antibiotic streptomycin used in the treatment of tuberculosis and other diseases, 1943. • 1905: First successful
cornea transplant
by Eduard Zirm
(Czech Republic) • 1954: First successful kidney
transplant by
Joseph Murray (Boston, U.S.A.) • 1966: First successful pancreas transplant by Richard Lillehei and William Kelly (Minnesota, U.S.A.) • 1967: First
successful liver
transplant
by Thomas Starzl
(Denver, U.S.A.) • 1967: First successful
heart transplant by Christiaan Barnard
(Cape Town, South Africa) • 1981: First successful
heart/lung
transplant by
Bruce Reitz
(Stanford, U.S.A.) • 1983: First successful
lung lobe transplant
by Joel Cooper
(Toronto, Canada) •1986: First
successful
double-lung
transplant
(Ann Harrison)
by Joel Cooper
(Toronto, Canada) • 1995: First successful
laparoscopic
live-donor nephrectomy
by Lloyd Ratner and
Louis Kavoussi (Baltimore, U.S.A.) • 1998: First successful
live-donor partial
pancreas transplant
by David Sutherland
(Minnesota, U.S.A.)•;
First successful
hand transplant (France) • 1999: First successful
Tissue Engineered Bladder
transplanted by Anthony Atala
(Boston Children's Hospital, U.S.A.) •2005: First
successful
partial face
transplant
(France) • 2006: First jaw
transplant to combine
donor jaw with
bone marrow
from the patient,
by Eric M. Genden
(Mount Sinai Hospital, New York); •2008: First successful complete
full double arm
transplant by Edgar Biemer,
Christoph Höhnke
and Manfred Stangl (Technical University of Munich, Germany) First baby born from transplanted ovary;
First transplant
of a human
windpipe using
a patient’s own stem cells,
by Paolo Macchiarini (Barcelona,
Spain) • 2010: First full facial transplant, by Dr Joan Pere Barret and team (Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron on July 26, 2010 in Barcelona, Spain.) MRI (1973)- Today MRI’s are used as a medical imaging technique in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures without extensive surgery. CT Scan (1971)- The first commercially viable CT scanner was invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield in Hayes, United Kingdom, at EMI Central Research Laboratories using X-rays. Dussik, an Austrian, published the first paper on ultrasonics in 1942. Professor Ian Donald of Scotland, who developed the practical technology and applications for ultrasound in the 1950’s. The defribrillator uses a hollow needle to pass an insulated wire to the heart area to deliver the electrical shock, invented by a heart specialist, Hyman, and an electrical engineer, Otor, 1933. Used in vitro fertilization (Zielinksi) Lambert, Tim. "A Brief History of Medicine." A World History Encyclopedia. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. . "History of Medicine." Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry School Science. Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/abpi/history/index.html>. "American Experience | The Pill | Timeline." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. . SPACE It's been natural for humans to always wonder what is in outerspace but could never answer that question, not really, until the mid 20th century when satellites, animals, and finally humans were sent to space. Today we use rockets to get ships and satelites into space. The first rockets were made by the Chinese propelled by the gunpowder that they invented around the 1300's Although, these rockets never made it to space and were only used as weapons, it was the start of rockets HISTORY Modern Rocketry Begins Robert H. Goddard (American) 1905 Father of Modern Rocketry Goddard was the first to propose the idea of using liquid fuel, which is used today, instead of gunpowder, to better launch rockets. He started testing and making model rockets with liquid fuel in 1905. In 1926 launched the first liquid fueled model rocket using liquid oxygen and gas. It only went for 2 seconds and about 40 seconds, but it was the start of using more efficient and inexpensive fuel for rockets. He began to build larger rockets that flew a little farther. Hermann Oberth (German) 1923 Oberth was the first one to propose the idea of using liquid fueled rockets for space travel and wrote a very important book in 1923. This book's very important writings caused many rocket societies to spring up like the German Verein fur Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel). It also led to the development of the V-2 rocket, which was a weapon used against London during World War II. THE V-2 Missle (German) 1937 The V-2 rocket, which all came from Oberth's work, (in Germany called the A-4) was small compared to today's rockets. It achieved great thrust by burning a mixture of liquid oxygen and alcohol at a rate of about one ton every seven seconds. Once launched, the V-2 was a great missile that could be launched and devastate whole city blocks. Finally Getting to Space INTRO TO LIQUID FUEL PROULSION THE SPACE RACE-COLD WAR ERA USA vs. Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) The Space Race was a mid-to-late twentieth century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for outer space supremecy. It was to see who could start space exploration first and was seen as a symbol of technological and ideological superiority if one could launch something into space first. The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon 1957 This race started in 1957 when the U.S.S.R sent out the first artificial satelite out into space that orbited the Earth called the Sputnik I. It caused panic in the U.S. when citizens didn't know what it was and if it could be wattching them or could attack. In 1955, with both the United States and the Soviet Union building ballistic missiles that could be used to launch objects into space, the space race began. 1955-The Race Begins The U.S. Strikes Back 1958-The Explorer I The U.S. striked back and launched its first satelite, the Explorer I just a year later from the Sputnik, in 1958, which once again tied the space race. N.A.S.A-1958 (American)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration N.A.S.A was launched as an American federal program and was used to launch the Explorer I. It's still the most important space agency for the U.S. and has made technological advances in space. FIRST MAN ON THE MOON-USA 1969 NASA launched the Apollo 11 spacecraft in 1969 and it landed on the moon. The first two men to walk on the moon were Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. N.A.S.A.'s Space Shuttle In the 1970's a much lager spacecraft known as the shuttle was created in is still what we use today for manned space missions. They are much larger and safer. The U.S.S.R. also developed a new program similar to this around the same time. 1970's SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS
1980's-2011(Feb. 24) NASA launched several space shuttle, manned missions, few of which ended up in tragic catastrophes, from 1981 to Februrary, 2011. The shuttles used, not in order as there were at least 100 missions, were the Discovery, Atlanits, Endeavor, Columbia, and the Challenger. NASA's base is in Houston Texas but the launch site is located in Florida. TODAY Today there are thousands of state of the art satelites, and other observatories in space like the Hubble Telescope and rovers that land on the moon. The world went from small chinese rockets that shot forward as missiles to ginormous space shuttles with men in space. "Rocket History." Aeronautics Learning Laboratory for Science Technology, and Research (ALLSTAR) Network. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/rock_hist1.html>. NASA - Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/>. Bellis, Mary. "Timeline of Space Rocket Technology." Inventors. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/Astronauts_2.htm>. BY ALISON ROBY, ADAM ADNANE, MITCHELL TORJMAN, AND JOHNNY ANGELUCCI
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